Looking at the improving rate and the increasing dependency for technology advancement in this 21st century

Looking at the improving rate and the increasing dependency for technology advancement in this 21st century, the question that needs to be asked is how technology is changing work and employment the organisation is extremely concern for all the business environment and also for scholars of organizational psychology as well as organizational behaviour. This paper tends to analyze and describe how technology is indeed changing work and organisations the modern setting. Again, the paper as well looks at the attempts made to construe the main focus and purpose of modern research on the adverse effects of technology on work and organizations. The major keyword is technology.

INTRODUCTION
We are living in a world today where technology is rapidly growing, most especially information and communication technology is indeed having adverse changing in the manner businesses outline value, how and the way people should work, how they should work and lastly the manner and how individual should relate, interact and communicate.
In this question, how technology changes work and organisation are clearly stated.

According to (Beniger 1986, Bradley & Nolan 1998, Bradley et al. 2016 ), highlighted in their statement that, the adverse effects of technology has indeed over the past had a reference about the history of humanly been recorded. The stage of development and the rapid moving forward in the area of civilization can be categorised in three various periods of time according to their sequential central technological underlying framework in their dispositions looking insight in the agricultural period, the industrial period, and the digital period which are various areas of work. Fortunately, for each of these periods has greatly improved through the acquisition of new information and knowledge since technology is involved and has transcended them all. Nevertheless, each of these periods of dispositions has enacted new economic structures, social procedure, cultural appearance, and work models.

AGRICULTURAL DISPENSATION: In the agricultural period which has to do with the area of agriculture, people mainly give priority to the usage of the power of natural forces which are mostly known as wind and water. During that period, the most considered and usefulness of resources by people was land, livestock, and agricultural means. But during this period, technology has indeed changed the pattern of work for those in the sector of business, especially whereby the owner of those resources has adequate possession and dominance over certain information.

INDUSTRIAL DISPENSATION: In the industrial period, people focus more on the use of industrial ability to get the required work done, the purchase/acquisition of former physical resources, and a case of larger production operating in inline with the legal factor of costs increment. On this, when the necessary factors of production which are land as natural resources, labour as human efforts and capital as finances) are of high output and lacks no inefficiency, the need of manufacturing additional unit will be expensive than the average to be produced. Technology has course changes in work and organisation in this period, through which the availability and abundance a civilisation of material usage was actualized through an increase in the productivity of the physical space in the process of building factories and setting up industrial complexes etc. There is mutual coordination which creates an aura among producers, distributors, and consumers alike; it also brings recorded advanced productivity; ef?ciency in process delivery; and given adequate and calls for open attention to transaction costs were certainly all vital as significance to the success of industrial societies.

DIGITAL DISPENSATION: Here, people are prioritizing and have preoccupied their mind on the posterity and exchange of products and services through digitalized data, of information, and knowledge. Changes occurred in work and organisation by technology through the digital period. In this period, it is based on infrastructural facilities made up of information and communication technologies both of which are very essential. These upgraded infrastructural facilities are in a way not just there in assisting people, individual etc do things better and rapidly than in the former period; rather, it is bringing new methods of adjustment, coordination and mutual relations on activities more readily, by a means of reduced costs which is controlled by the effect of the law of diminishing cost. Through the essence of digital goods, there is a reduction in the cost of goods, a situation where the other cost of factors of production remains the same. Through the assessment of digital period, every other thing has fallen into place, control and well utilised as compared to the way it was before. The development of computers and communication technologies came into existence and now growing rapidly causing changes in work and organisation through the inception digital period. These technologies should be appreciated in all aspect because they have indeed changed work situation to more useful, less cost, increase productivity etc and an effect on the organisation.

In the second part of the question is centred on techno change management for the need to use IT to drive organisation change. Information technology is a very powerful tool in today’s world as it transforms the world in various spheres of life of which organisation is not an exemption. IT has indeed brought about new revolution in organisation where all work activities in organisation are computerised in software management which has made work easier and very effective and efficient, less stressful and result is being actualised within a short while as compared to using physical power to carry out some work activities in organisation which takes time, slow the work and burdensome thereby affecting organisational performance, productivity and organisational development and change.
Of course, when organisations in a way bring new information technologies in place, the need for important changes in people’s work in the organisation and the results of organisational performance is often times not frequently present. Let’s not forget that using IT to drive organisational change is not that easy reason being that, it calls for high escalating variables, even though it brings about organisational change. Using IT to drive organisational change focuses on some key points that can drive organisational change which are;
ORGANISATIONAL PERFORMANCE: Through the use of IT, it brings about improvements in the organisation as result of a positive change in the organisation.

ORGANISATIONAL GROWTH: Most organisations growth emerges through the use of IT in the organisation. The changes in the organisation could not have taken place in the absence of IT. To further buttress this point is a case study of the white elephant restaurant that prepares and serves Thai cuisine meals to the customer. The organisation decided to imbibe in this new development of IT in order to drive organisational change which indeed was achieved. Through this IT, the leader needed to change the manner in which the waiters relate to customers and that could not have been actualised without IT.
CROSS FUNCTIONING OF ORGANISATION: In this regards, most managers of an organisation use IT to drive organisational change which is a start-up for organisational success. To further buttress this point is a case study of Novo Nordisk pharmaceutical company, Denmark that has indeed utilised the use of IT in it operation for the production of insulin in a more modern and unique way which has brought about success in the organisation. Novo Nordisk needed to pose a variation on the part of its personnel where everyone in various departments is very busy and highly committed to their work as well as being focused to attain sustainable performance of their various departments in other to move the organisation forward through absorbing of IT.
Through recent studies, it has shown that/ IT indeed has made important contributions to business value. New IT indeed can serve as a power-driven force to call for change, existing state of organisational are most times powerful. For change to be very successful in organisational performance there should be a well structured techno-change solution that will correlate the changes of new IT in the organisation to create that support.

Techno-change is certainly the use of IT to drive achievement in organisational accomplishment. A successful techno-change is attributed holistically. In achieving the end product, both are the characteristics of the solution to techno-change as well as the plan of techno-change and the fulfilment process is indeed very important.

To compare these approaches are centred on the similarities and differences of both.

For participatory design approach, it is a system that most support the nature and the kind of work that is certainly made use of. In using IT to drive organisational change, of course when organisations in a way bring new information technologies in place, the need for important changes in people’s work in the organisation and the results of organisational performance is often times not frequently present.

Participatory design approach has much to present. It brings about benefit which can happen in terms of making clear goals and needs, planning logically connected focus for change, relating business oriented and have a clear vision of positive participation in various aspects which connote success. Through recent studies, it has shown that/IT indeed has made important contributions to business value. New IT indeed in a way can serve a powerful driven force to call for change, existing state of organisational are most times powerful. For change to be very successful in organisational performance there should be a well structured techno-change solution that will correlate the changes of new IT in the organisation to create that support.

(Markus) in his write-up, “techno-change” indeed combines a bigger information technology(IT) to bring to existence a technology-driven organisational change. Here ( Jesper Simonsen, Morten Hertzum) said, what is to be the original is not a just mere technical solution or just organisational change, but the two of them in practice.

Organisations can perform in so many important and esteem ways in regards to IT aside just actualising organisational change and result. Orlikowski and Hofman pointed out that, there is an alternative model for controlling technological change and not just but change in other areas.

Their strength is; first, there is a totality of desired change with a test that is aimed at implementing an entire IT-integrated EPR system to coordinate and assist various functioning in the organisation. Second, the crave for a change was stated in the earlier experiment where there was full participation of staff and other people in the various unit to ensure an effective implementation. Third, is the evaluation of the desired changes that imbibe a qualitative analysis system that checks for numbering of explicitly stated effects.

The various weaknesses are, first, the motivation of people were not highly intensified in involving much to a participatory design approach of which the call for it was proposed. Second, one of the major weaknesses is lack means to the coup and adjusts the motivations and concerns of a great number of stakeholders in the organisation. Third, is the inability of a vivid impression to coup with a stepwise implementation process. In all, the participatory design should be very demanded coping with these weaknesses.

CONCLUSION
In conclusion, in the light of the above analysis, description and discussion of the relations, it clearer to comprehend technology in the various areas and the participatory design revolving in the organisation and organisational change management. It also made provision for changes in work and organisations, the drive for organisational change.