In the article “poor oral hygiene in long term care”

In the article “poor oral hygiene in long term care”( Wilson. D’Agostino,1998), there is a firm emphasizing on how nurses could provide a better understanding of various body system and how they affect cardiac functions. Various researches have proven the correlation between oral hygiene, sedentary lifestyle eating the wrong food could increase the risk of stroke, heart disease pneumonia and many other cardiovascular diseases. The question was how and what solutions can be instituted into these facilities to provide care providers and their staff to better take care of uninformed individuals in their care.Before diving into the phenomenon of cardiovascular disease a brief explanation of how Cardiovascular system, an orchestrated system composed of the heart, blood vessels and blood works. This orchestrated system delivers blood, gases and nutrients to all the parts of the body (OpenStax, 2013). Interference with the normal physiology of this system results in dysfunction or disorders which are generally known as heart diseases. An artery originate from the heart and usually carries oxygenated blood away from the heart and then branches to extend to other parts of the body. The narrowing of the arteries especially coronary arteries lead to the obstruction of blood reaching the heart muscles. With inadequate blood perfusion to the heart muscles symptoms due to the stress on the heart muscles may begin to manifest symptoms such as chest pain, shortness of breath and blackouts, if these symptoms persist without any form of treatment may result in cardiogenic shock and subsequently death. There are various categories of cardiovascular disease such as, heart attack, coronary artery disease, hypertension, cardiomyopathy among others. These studies therefore aim at discussing various forms of cardiovascular disorders.Edema and varicose vein, currently many people suffer from fluid accumulation in various body parts and tissues particularly if they spend most of their time on their feet. A good example is law enforcers and most health workers (OpenStax, 2013). Underlying causes of edema are attributed to various conditions such as hypertension, renal failure, protein deficiency, heart failure among others. Edema may be associated with varicose vein, which is a condition that manifest when a defective vein allow blood to accumulate within the veins particularly in the vein located in lower limbs. This disorder affects both genders equally but in particular pregnant women are mostly affected. The disease can be contained in the early stages when symptoms manifest but if not treated it may develop other complication.Arteriosclerosis, according to compliance of the blood vessels is very important to allow the vessel to adjust according to stress imposed to it by the flow of the blood. It is the leading cause of coronary disease and hypertension (OpenStax, 2013). The disorder makes the heart to overwork in order to generate sufficient energy to overcome resistance the narrowing of the vessel lumen (OpenStax, 2013). Arteriosclerosis occurs with the damage to the inner wall (endothelium) of the artery or accumulation of fats, in particular low density lipoproteins or fibers which results in the narrowing of blood vessel. This results in the reduced flow of the blood to various body tissues which interfere with the normal physiology. Treat involves the change in lifestyle and medications such a drug that lower amount of cholesterol in blood after meals.Coronary heart disease, commonly known as heart attack is a condition happens as a result to blood vessels which supplies nutrients to the muscles of the heart is blocked. Nutrients and oxygen are not supplied to the heart muscles while wastes continue to accumulate. Due to lack of fresh supply of nutrients the muscles of the heart collapses resulting into a heart attack. According to Peter et al., (1998) heart attack is the leading cause of increased morbidity and mortality among many adult in North American and Europe. Many people are at risk including people with hypertension, diabetes, ventricular hypertrophy, cigarette smoking among many others. According to Ronen, 2017, Hypertension is one of chronic diseases which is a risk factor for various disease such as congenital heart failure and end-stage kidney disease among others (Ronen, 2017). It is characterized by blood pressure above 140/90 mm of mercury. One may be suffering from high blood pressure even without symptoms. Normal blood pressure stands at 120/80 mm Hg. High blood pressure predispose an individual to risks of heart attacks and stroke. Detection of high blood pressure is critical in the control of other conditions such as stroke and heart attacks. Stroke this is a condition in which blood flow to brain is disrupted resulting in death of brain cells. Strokes are of two types which include an ischemic stroke which result from disruption of blood flow. A Hemorrhagic stroke which occurs due to bleeding in the brain as when the arteries in the brain become occluded due to blood clots. In conclusion, several research methods for preventing cardiovascular diseases, most of the suggestions from doctors require a change in life style. For example, those who smoke, should attempt to quit smoking since it will greatly reduce the risk of harming the oral mucosa and subsequently causing heart disease. Also, periodic tolerable exercise and a well-balanced diet have been established in the medical world to be effective in regulatory of high blood pressure and high lipid levels. Before embarking on an exercise regimen please consult your physician to determine what kind of exercise you need. Talk to your doctor about how to reduce certain risk factors such as high blood pressure and diabetes. A yearly visit to the dentist is highly recommended, for a health coronary system.

Levi-Vardi, R., ; Yagil, Y. (2017). Vitamin D, hypertension, and ischemic stroke: An
unresolved relationship. Hypertension, volume 70 (3), pp. 499–507. Retrieved from

Ong, K. L., Cheung, B. M., Man, Y. B., Lau, C. P., ; Lam, K. S. (2007). Prevalence,
awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension among United States adults 1999–2004. Hypertension, 49(1), 69-75.