FINAL YEAR INDIVIDUAL RESEARCH PROJECT Department of Civil Engineering Faculty of Engineering General Sir John Kotelawala Defence University Effect of Resource Planning on Construction Project Delays Submitted by N

FINAL YEAR INDIVIDUAL RESEARCH PROJECT
Department of Civil Engineering
Faculty of Engineering
General Sir John Kotelawala Defence University
Effect of Resource Planning on Construction Project Delays
Submitted by
N.D.D.T.Siriwardana
ENG/15/122
Department of Civil Engineering
September 15, 2018
Supervised by: Mrs. Imendra Waththuhewa
Abstract
Construction project delay is one of the main problems facing the construction industry of Sri Lanka. A successful construction project should be completed on time and within the stipulated budget. Therefore, causes of time delay are of critical importance to the profitability of most construction projects. Many researchers have identified contributory factors that cause delays in construction projects that affect contractors’ performance and overall economy of the country as well. The delay of construction projects are mainly linked to performance in relation to time, cost, and quality issues. One of the most important factors affecting construction project delays is poor resource planning. Effective construction resources planning process is a key to the success of a construction project. Therefore, deeper understanding of the effect of resource planning is very important to minimize construction project delays. Focusing on pipe laying projects this proposed research is going to identify delay factors in construction projects that are related to resource planning, analyze and rank the delay factors and make recommendations in order to minimize those delays.

Key words
Resource Planning, Construction, Delays
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Table of Contents

AbstractiTable of Contentii
List of Figuresiii
List of Tablesiii
Equationsiii
Abbreviationsiii
Chapter 01 Introduction1
1.1 Background2
1.2 Research Need2
1.3 Aim2
1.4 Scope2
1.5 Objectives2
Chapter 02 Literature Review3
1.1 Purpose3
1.1 Research Need3
References9
List of Figures
Figure 1.1 Sri Lanka GDP from construction………………………………………………1
Figure 3.1 Methodology Flow Chart………………………………………………………..6
List of Tables
Equations
Equation 3.1 Relative Importance Index……………………………………………………..6
Abbreviations
ADB: Asian Development Bank
JICA: Japan International Cooperation Agency
WB: World Bank
GDP : Gross Domestic Product

Chapter 01
Introduction
Background
The contribution to Sri Lanka’s GDP from the country’s construction industry in the fourth quarter of 2016 achieved a record all time high of RS. 200,970 Million (https://tradingeconomics.com/sri-lanka/gdp). The country’s construction industry has also seen acceleration since 2011 due to the addition of new airports, harbors, expressways and numerous real estate development projects.

13239752641600Figure 1.1 Sri Lanka GDP from Construction
020000Figure 1.1 Sri Lanka GDP from Construction
03175
Construction project delay is the most vital problem in the construction industry. The delay occurs as a result of an act or failure to act by contracting parties as well as by outside forces. Sri Lankan construction industry faces a significant rate of delays in project delivery. The causes of delays in construction in Sri Lankan have been identified and have been addressed individually by stakeholders. However, the delay occurs in almost all projects in Sri Lanka continuously Successful construction projects should be completed before project due dates and within budget. Therefore, causes of time delay are of critical importance to the profitability of most construction projects. Many researcher, in the literature, had been identified these problems as factors that affect the delay in construction projects and will affect company’s performance and overall economy of the country as well.
The delay in construction projects by many factors is usually linked to the performance of time, cost, and quality. One of the most important factors affecting construction project delay is poor resource planning. Therefore, deeper understanding of effect of resource planning is more important to minimize construction project delays. This study is an attempt to reveal the factors influencing the construction project delays in Sri Lanka with respect to the effect of resource planning and give recommendations to minimize construction project delays.

1.2 Research Need
In Sri Lanka we can see huge development in construction industry. There are many types of construction projects in all around the country. According to the estimations above 50% of those projects was not able to complete before the due dates (Annual Report of The Central Bank of Sri Lanka, 2016). Most of them are funded by foreign countries and international organizations such as ADB as loans. As a developing country Sri Lanka cannot achieve some goals in construction industry without those funds. Those countries and international organizations always looking for the progress of the projects which they were funded. All those loans are given in step by step and when they are passing the next part of the loan they highly consider the previous progress of the project. If they cannot satisfy with the current progress it will be a great issue to get the complete funding.
And also, this kind of construction project delays can damage the reflex of the construction companies also. There are many kinds of reasons affect for construction project delays. If we can find the impact of the resource planning to the construction project delays it will be helpful to the industry to reduce time and resource wastage in the construction industry.
1.3 Aim
Find the impact of the ineffective resource planning to the construction project delays, identify the importance of effective resource planning in construction industry to reduce the project delays which is highly necessary to the country economy and development and make recommendations to minimize project delays.
Scope
Since the construction industry covered the huge area this research is expected to carry out only for pipe laying projects in Sri Lanka. By considering the on going pipe laying projects in Colombo district we are going to identify and analyze the delay factors of the pipe laying projects regarding Machinery and Material resource planning. Under machinery resource planning Imperfect schedule planning, Insufficient fuel supply, delays in repairs and services, operator problems, lack of machineries and breakdowns in work site will be considered. Under material resource planning delays in transports, problems with suppliers, poor supply planning and delivery planning, delays in loadings and bad conditions in laying materials will be considered.

Objectives
Identify delay factors in construction projects that are related to resource planning
Analyze and rank the delay factors
Identify the importance of effective resource planning and its effect on construction project delays.

Make recommendations to minimize project delays.

Chapter 02
Literature Review
In order to achieve success in this research, the first step is to research and find information already available. The following literature review will concentrate about the other’s works that are similar to the topic. Furthermore, the literature review is used to view the study problem and our recommendations in terms of a general and different perception so that a quality solution can be stated.

2.1 Purpose
The Purpose of this literature review is to investigate information about the phenomena of the project delays in construction industry. Through the review process it will be considered about the procedures and available practices in context to the construction projects regarding project delays. There are many kinds of researches had been done by researchers regarding construction project delays. Here we highly consider about the researches which are related to Sri Lankan construction industry.

2.2 Review of existing systems
There is a research have been done in university of Peradeniya regarding “Planning & Mitigation Methods to Reduce the Project Delays in Sri Lankan Civil Engineering Construction Industries”. This study was carried out through questionnaire surveys and interviews conducted within the construction industry professionals in Sri Lanka. Here they identify the major causes of construction project delays in the construction industries in Sri Lanka and find out how planning and mitigation methods would minimize their impacts.

According to that research the causes for construction project delays are client related causes, contractor related causes, consultant related causes, material related causes, labour related causes, and equipment related causes and external causes. The effects of construction delays are acceleration of work, schedule change, delayed project completion, increased cost, liquidated damages etc. M. Kesavan, 2015
Planning is the heart of construction project management. The planner must weigh the cost and the reliability of different options, at the same time ensuring technical feasibility. Construction planning is more difficult in same ways since the construction process is dynamic as the site and the physical facility change over time as construction proceed.

By reviewing this research, we can find out some resource planning issues which cause to project delays in building constructions and will be applicable to pipe laying projects also.

There are some client side delay factors such as, delay in progress payments, change orders by owner during construction, poor communication and coordination, slowness in decision making process, conflicts between joint-ownership of the project and suspension of work by client.
There are some causes of delays by contractor such as, difficulties in financing project, conflicts in sub-contractors schedule, poor communication and coordination, frequent change of sub-contractors and ineffective planning and scheduling of project.

J. Jeyakanthan and A.K.W. Jayawardane have been done a research regarding “Mitigating Delays in Donor Funded Road Projects in Sri Lanka”. That study thus aims at identifying and quantifying the significant factors causing delays in road construction projects funded by Asian Development Bank (ADB), World Bank (WB) and Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). J. Jeyakanthan, 2012
It is generally accepted that a large number of foreign funded projects in Sri Lanka are inordinately delayed IESL, Proceedings of a work shop, 2005. These delays are common both in building and civil engineering projects, inevitably resulting in contractual claims and increased project cost. This researcher identified the reasons for time delays in the projects as, inadequate feasibility studies, errors and omissions in detail design, improperly harmonized procurement documents, shortcomings in contract documents, stakeholder identification and management issues, variations and scope changes, land acquisition and resettlement and shortage of bitumen. J. Jeyakanthan, 2012
Divya.R and S.Ramya have been done a research on “Causes, Effects and Minimization of Delays in Construction Projects”. According to them delays in construction can cause a number of changes in a project such as late completion, lost productivity, acceleration, increased costs, and contract termination. The party experiencing damages and the parties responsible for them in order to recover time and cost. However, in general delay situations are complex in nature. R. Divya, 2015
Delays caused by the client such as late submission of drawings and specifications, frequent change orders, and inadequate site information generates claims from both the main contractors and subcontractors which many times entail lengthy court proceedings with huge repercussions. Delays caused by contractors can generally be attributes to poor managerial skills. Lack of planning and a poor understanding of accounting and financial principles have led to many a contractor’s downfall. R. Divya, 2015
According to their identification the reasons for the construction project delays are, contractor’s improper planning, contractor’s poor site management, inadequate client’s finance and payments for completed work, shortage in material, labor supply, equipment availability and failure and lack of communication between parties,
Sandip Pawar and P.M. Attarde have been done a research on “Time and Cost Planning in Construction Project” and here they discussed about resource tracking, minimize the uncertainty and cost effectiveness in construction projects. S. Pawar, 2013
According to that research causes of delays of projects are, confined space for material handling, unavailability of epoxy coated reinforcement, late procurement of materials, material handling issues due to unavailability of overhead cranes, changes in material specification and shortage of skilled labors.

They recommend the solutions such as, implementing proper inventory control system, proper planning and scheduling for the work and implementing quality management system for the work.

There is a research have been done by researchers in university of Moratuwa is about “Plant and equipment management to minimize delays in road construction projects”. In their point of view construction is an ultimate objective of a design, and the transformation of a design by construction into a useful structure which is accomplished through proper management of human, material, machineries and equipment resources. A project manager must insure that these inputs are effectively coordinated to achieve an efficient construction process. S. Randunupura, 2013
Construction industry is a rapidly developing industry in Sri Lanka with the many projects which are currently on progress. At the same time, delays in completion can be seen frequently. Plant and equipment management is a major procedure in a construction project. Because of the complexity of this procedure, project time could be affected by poor plant and equipment management. That research addressed the issue of poor plant and equipment management is effect on project delays. S. Randunupura, 2013
D. A. R. Dolage and T. Pathmarajah have been done a research on “Mitigation of Delays Attributable to the Contractors in the Construction Industry of Sri Lanka – Consultants’ Perspective”. This study focused on determining important causes of construction delays attributable to contractors in large construction projects in Sri Lanka and the degree of severity of these causes. D. Dolage, 2015 They clarified the related causes for construction delays as management related causes, finance related causes and construction related causes.

Management Related Causes (MRC) which related to the proposed research are poor project planning and scheduling, delays in material supply and poor skill development.

Finance Related Causes (FRC) are poor profit margin, inadequate cash flow management, poor estimation practices and poor cost controlling system.

Construction Related Causes (CRC) are faulty work, insufficient quality control, poor supervision of work, insufficient availability of equipment and insufficient safety precautions at site.

This proposed research is going to find out the effect of the resource planning for construction project delays in pipe laying projects in Sri Lanka. Considering the literature review there can not found any research regarding pipe laying. But from the literature we can get the information about most effected and common construction project delay factors which are applicable to pipe laying projects also. Therefore from the literature we have identified the most common and effected delay factors applicable for the pipe laying projects and in our research we are going to measure the effect of that identified delay factors in pipe laying project delays.

Chapter 03
Methodology
From the literature review, a methodology will develop to conduct the study on effect of resource planning on construction project delays. Questionnaire survey method will use to collect data.
3.1 Questionnaire
As the first step of the research, a questionnaire will prepare. This questionnaire will base on a review carried out on past studies. Factors affecting construction project delays related to resource planning going to find from those studies. From this survey we are going to find the most critical entities among those according to the Sri Lankan context. The questionnaire will distribute among project managers, site engineers, clients, consultants etc. in the construction industry covering pipe laying projects.
123825156210Select the most affective factors in machinery and material resource planning
00Select the most affective factors in machinery and material resource planning
left12827000220916512827000right194945Analyze the gathered data and give Recommendations
00Analyze the gathered data and give Recommendations
436245014732000
363855025654000154305024701500240030018415Do the questionnaire survey
00Do the questionnaire survey

9239258255Fig 3.1 Methodology flow chart
00Fig 3.1 Methodology flow chart

3.2 Analysis
Relative important index will calculate.

137160053975
9137655715Equa. 3.1 Relative Importance Index
020000Equa. 3.1 Relative Importance Index

Where,
RII = relative importance index
P i = respondent’s rating of cause of delay
U i = number of respondents placing identical weighting/rating on cause of delay
N = sample size
n = the highest attainable score on cause of delay
The factors will rank in each category based on the Relative Importance Index (RII)
References
1 D. Dolage and T. Pathmarajah, Mitigation of Delays Attributable to the Contractors in the Construction Industry of Sri Lanka – Consultants’ Perspective. Sri Lanka: The Institution of Engineers, 2015, pp. 21-30. 2 IESL. “Issues Related to Delays in Infrastructure Development Projects”. Institution of Engineers Sri Lanka. Proceedings of a work shop, 2005.
3 J. Jeyakanthan and A. Jayawardane, Mitigating Delays in Donor Funded Road Projects in Sri Lanka. Sri Lanaka: The Institution of Engineers, 2012, pp. 65-75.
4 M. Kesavan, N. N. Gobidan, P. B. G. Dissanayake, “Planning ; Mitigation Methods to Reduce the Project Delays in Sri Lankan Civil Engineering Construction Industries”, 6th International Conference on Structural Engineering and Construction Management, Kandy, Sri Lanka, 2015, pp. 102-107
5 R. Divya and S. Ramya, Causes, Effects and Minimization of Delays in Construction Projects. Bharathiyar Institute of Engineering for Women, Deviyakurichi: National Conference on Research Advances in Communication, Computation, Electrical Science and Structures, 2015, pp. 47-53.
6 S. Pawar and A. P.M, Time and Cost Planning in Construction Project. Civil Engineering Department, S.S.G.B.C.O.E.& Tech., Bhusawal. Maharashtra, India: International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR), 2013, pp. 422-425.
7 S. Randunupura and C. Hadiwattege, Plant and Equipment Management to Minimize Delays in Road Construction Projects. Department of building economics, University of Moratuwa: The second world construction symposium, Colombo, Sri Lanka, 2013, pp. 333342.