Chapter 3 RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS This chapter presents the results of the treatment of the gathered data and their interpretations and/or implications

Chapter 3
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
This chapter presents the results of the treatment of the gathered data and their interpretations and/or implications. Specifically, this part shows the findings on the factors that affect the academic performance of MAAP Midshipmen Class 2021 during the first and second semesters of the academic year 2017-2018. In addition, the level of academic performance of Class 2021 has been identified. Also, the significant relationship of the extent of factors that affect the academic performance when their profile is considered. Finally, the significant difference among the level of the academic performance of the same respondents under the program of Bachelor of Science of Marine Transportation and Marine Engineering.
Profile of MAAP midshipmen Class 2021
Students profile such as the age (Kyoshaba, 2009), educational background and type of the previous school attended greatly affects their academic performance (Papageorgiou, 2017).
Table 1 displays the frequency (f) and percent (%) of the profile of MAAP Midshipmen Class 2021
Evidently, most of the respondents are college graduates (64.79%) while 9.15% and 26.06% were college undergraduates and high school graduates respectively. Majority of the respondents are in the age of 19 (38.73%) – 20 (25.35%) and were educated in private schools (60.56%).

The level of the academic performance of Class 2021
The level of academic performance of MAAP Midshipmen Class 2021 in Mathematics and Science related courses are determined in their academic performance during their 1st and 2nd Semesters of the school year 2017-2018. These records are retrieved in the registrar’s office of MAAP.

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In determining the subjects related to Mathematics and Science related courses, the researchers conducted a survey and was given to the Function Heads of the Engine and Deck Department. By the completion of the survey, the researchers have able to group the courses related to mathematics only, science only, and both math and science.

See Appendices.

Table 2 displays the status, frequency (f) and percentage (%) of MAAP midshipmen. It also includes the composite average, standard deviation, and range of the academic performance of the midshipmen in Math-related and both Math and Science-related courses.

Table 2 shows that in Math-related Courses, most midshipmen (72.73%) under the program BSMarE performed poorly in their academics. On the other hand, from BSMT 44.57% midshipmen performed poorly while 55.43% midshipmen performed proficiently in their academics. While in both Math and Science related courses, it is observed that most midshipmen of Class 2021 performed proficiently in their academics in both programs of BSMarE (98.86%) and BSMT (84.78%).
It can be observed that the mean average in Math-related courses of BsMarE students of Class 2021 is 56.46 with a standard deviation of 7.77 which indicates that most midshipmen have grades between 7.77 lower to 7.77 higher than the mean average (48.70 – 64.25). While in BSMT, most midshipmen have grades between 53.79 and 71.14. Also, it shows that in both Math and Science related courses most midshipmen under the program of BSMarE have grades between 66.17 and 77.95 while most midshipmen under the program of BSMT have grades between 64.92 and 77.88.

Finally, a great percentage of MAAP Midshipmen Class 2021 (58.33%) performs poorly in their academics in Math-related courses. While most of the midshipmen (91.67%) perform proficiently in both Math and Science related courses.

The effect of the identified factors on the academic performance of Class 2021
This presents the mean results of the survey conducted which shows the extent of the factors that affect the academic performance of MAAP Midshipmen Class 2021. The factors are grouped based on the results of the factor analysis conducted. The perceived factors are grouped into four final factors such as the student motivational factors, relationship related factors, facility-related factors, and distraction factors. See Appendices.

First, the student motivational factors are the motivations of the students to perform well academically. The student was motivated by himself and the outside peers such as his family. Second, the relationship related factors which are the factors related to the relationship that influence the students to study or to excel academically such as their instructors and parents through its support. Third, the facility related factors which are the factors pertaining to the effect of the facility to the student’s performance. The ease and access that the students experience or felt through their schooling hours have an effect on their performance. Fourth, the distraction factors which are the distraction felt by the students come from either of their school, friends or family. These factors could draw their attention to be motivated or not in their academics.

The extent of each factor are identified through the Likert Scale used in the survey that is based on the study conducted by Fagenson & Burke (1994) which has a scale mean and interpretation of;
Scale Mean Interpretation
5.00 To a very great extent
4.00 – 4.99 To a great extent
3.00 – 3.99 To a moderate extent
2.00 – 2.99 To some extent
1.99 & Below Not at all
Table 3.1 Student Motivational Factors
Student Motivational Factors Mean Remarks
1. I listen to my teacher.

2. I actively participate in the discussion, answering exercises and clarifying things I did not understand.

3. I wanted to get good grades on tests, quizzes, assignments, and projects.

4. I am prepared for the subject before the start of class.

5. I exert more effort when doing difficult assignments.

6. I study the lessons I’ve missed during my absence.

7. I study and prepare for quizzes and exams.

8. I make sure that extracurricular activities do not hamper my studies.

9. I have a specific place to study in the dormitory which I keep clean and orderly.

10. I do my assignments regularly.

11. I spend my vacant time doing assignments and studying my lessons.

12. I study harder to improve my performance whenever I get low grades.

13. I prefer to finish my studies and assignments first before doing personal things.

14. I am motivated by my parents to improve my studies.

Composite Mean 4.48
4.12
4.51
3.92
4.06
4.13
4.35
4.30
4.23
4.28
3.94
4.27
3.96
4.64
4.23 Great Extent
Great Extent
Great Extent
Moderate Extent
Great Extent
Great Extent
Great Extent
Great Extent
Great Extent
Great Extent
Moderate Extent
Great Extent
Great Extent
Great Extent
Great Extent
Table 3.1 shows that student motivational factors identified in this study had an extensive effect on the academic performance of MAAP Class 2021 as indicated by the grand mean value of 4.23. These factors include attitude, desire for good grades, study habits, priorities, and motivations. This shows that students who have higher motivations will perform well academically compared to a student who may be capable to perform well but has shallow motivations or not motivated at all. The attitude of the students toward learning will determine their academic performance whether poor or good.

Table 3.2 Relationship Related Factors
Relationship-Related Factors Mean Remarks
1. I am supported by my family financially.

2. My instructors have a good relationship with the student and co-instructors.
3. My instructors impose proper discipline and are not lenient in following the prescribed rules.

4. My instructors are open to suggestions, opinions and are worthy of praise.

5. My instructors show smartness, confidence, and firmness in making decisions.

6. My instructors have an appealing personality with a good sense of humor.

7. My instructors explain the objectives of the lesson clearly at the start of each period.

8. My instructors have mastered the subject matter.

9. My instructors are organized in presenting the subject matter systematically in accordance with the course syllabus.

10. My instructors are updated with the present trends relevant to the subject matter.

11. My instructors show various strategies, teaching aids/devices and techniques in presenting the lesson.

Grand Mean 4.34
4.38
4.44
4.44
4.53
4.41
4.45
4.43
4.44
4.42
4.40
4.43 Great Extent
Great Extent
Great Extent
Great Extent
Great Extent
Great Extent
Great Extent
Great Extent
Great Extent
Great Extent
Great Extent
Great Extent
Table 3.2 presents that relationship related factors have the greatest impact on academic performance as indicated by the grand mean value of 4.43. This indicates that the respondents felt that teaching strategies, student-teacher relationship, and family support hinder their academic performance. This supports the result of the study conducted by Alshammari, Al-shammari, Altheban, Saguban ; Pasay-an (2017) that states that among the different factors affecting the academic performance the student-teacher relationship has the greatest impact. This implies that the quality of student-teacher relationships plays an important role in the student’s academic performance and is greatly responsible for the student’s performance whether poor or good.
Table 3.3 Facility Related Factors
Facility Related Factors Mean Remarks
1. I use the learning facilities provided by the Academy (library, computer lab, whiteboard).

2. I use the learning facilities in performing our coursework.

3. I think that the facilities provided by the Academy meet the standards for physical requirement (classroom size, lighting, air conditioning, tables, and chairs).

4. I can easily access the internet in the library.

5. I adhere to the “English Only Policy” of the Academy.

6. I maximize the limited study hours during study call.

7. I can manage the stress received from upperclassmen.

Grand Mean 4.58
4.51
4.51
4.42
4.23
4.32
4.43
4.43 Great Extent
Great Extent
Great Extent
Great Extent
Great Extent
Great Extent
Great Extent
Great Extent
Table 3.3 shows that the facility related factors had the same impact with the influential peers’ factors with a composite mean of 4.43 on the academic performance of MAAP Class 2021. These factors include the availability and the quality of learning facilities such as the library, computer, laboratories as well as seniority and academic policies of the Academy. The school facilities should have a comfortable environment and updated resources to help the students to perform well in their academics.

Table 3.4 Distraction Factors
Distraction Factors Mean Remarks
1. I get frustrated when the discussion is interrupted or the teacher is absent.

2. I am affected by being away from home.

3. I am affected by not having a means of communication through social media.

4. I spend less time with my friends during school days to concentrate more on my studies.

Composite Mean 3.90
3.58
3.78
3.96
3.81 Moderate Extent
Moderate Extent
Moderate Extent
Moderate Extent
Moderate Extent
Distraction factors had the lowest grand mean value of 3.81. Despite being the lowest in the four-given factors, evidently, distraction factors affect the student’s academic performance to a moderate extent. Distraction factors include frustration during class discussion, time spent with friends, being away from home, and lack of family communication. These factors influence the student to perform poor or good academic performance.

The relationship of the identified factors and the student’s profile
Table 4. Identified Factors and Students’ Profile
Chi-Square Null Hypothesis
There is no association between the pair of variables.

Variable 1 Variable 2 p-value Decision Conclusion
Student Motivational Factor Educational Attainment ;0.000 Reject HoRelated
Student Motivational Factor School Type ;0.000 Reject HoRelated
Student Motivational Factor Age 0.986 Do not Reject HoNot Related
Influential Peers Factor Educational Attainment ;0.000 Reject HoRelated
Influential Peers Factor School Type ;0.000 Reject HoRelated
Influential Peers Factor Age 0.461 Do not Reject HoNot Related
Family-Related Factor Educational Attainment ;0.000 Reject HoRelated
Family-Related Factor School Type ;0.000 Reject HoRelated
Family-Related Factor Age 0.797 Do not Reject HoNot Related
Distraction Factor Educational Attainment ;0.000 Reject HoRelated
Distraction Factor School Type ;0.000 Reject HoRelated
Distraction Factor Age 0.789 Do not Reject HoNot Related
Table 5 reveals that there is a significant difference in the extent of effect the identified factors have on the academic performance of MAAP Midshipmen Class 2021 when their profile is considered. Both educational Attainment and the type of school attended found to have a significant effect on the academic performance of the respondents. Only age was found to have no significant influence on the academic performance of the said respondents. The findings are in agreement with other previous studies.
The study of Kyoshaba (2009) observed that students’ academic performance is greatly influenced by the type of school which they attended. In the same way, Ali, S., Haider, Munir, Khan, & Ahmed (2013) also revealed that the academic performance of students are strongly affected by the type of school where they have received their education.
Dobbs, Rutland, and Totemeyer (2013) stated that previous educational attainment, in particular from previous school education, shape the student’s ability to adapt to the school environment and the study shows that the previous educational attainment of the student has an impact on their academic achievement.
Voyles (2011) shows that age has no significant effect on the students’ test scores and their academic success.

The relationship of the academic performance of BSMarE and BSMT
Table 5. Level of Academic Performance of between BSMarE and BSMT
Independent Sample T-test
  Levene’s Test for Equality of Variances t-test for Equality of Means
F Sig. t dfSig. (2-tailed) Mean Difference Std. Error Difference 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference
Lower Upper
Math related courses Equal variances assumed 1.094 .297 -4.849 176 .000 -5.99242 1.23580 -8.43131 -3.55352
Equal variances not assumed     -4.855 174.677 .000 -5.99242 1.23427 -8.42843 -3.55641
Math and Science related courses Equal variances assumed 1.255 .264 .710 176 .478 .65953 .92847 -1.17284 2.49190
Equal variances not assumed     .711 175.093 .478 .65953 .92748 -1.17095 2.49001
For both math-related and math and science-related courses, Levene’s test shows that the variances for each mean are equal since p-value (0.297 and 0.264 respectively) is greater than 0.05 level of confidence. Hence, the results for the test were verified under Levene’s test with equal variance.

For Math related courses we can see that the p-value (;0.000) is less than 0.05. Therefore, at 5% level of significance, we have a sufficient evidence to say that the mean average grade in math of BS MT is greater than the mean average score of BSMarE.
For Math and science-related courses, p-value (0.478) is greater than the 0.05 level of confidence. Hence, at 5% level of significance, we don’t have a sufficient evidence to say that the mean average grade in math and science related courses of BSMarE is greater than the mean average score of BSMT.

Chapter 4

SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
This chapter presents an encapsulation of the findings of this study based on the questions raised in the first chapter of this paper. Moreover, the conclusions derived from the findings are also hereby advanced. Finally, recommendations are given for the expansion, improvement and further exploration of the topic.

Summary of Findings
This paper aimed to determine the factors that affect the academic performance of MAAP Midshipmen Class 2021. It relates the extent of the factors that affect the academic performance of the same respondents when the profile is considered. Also, it intended to identify the level of academic performance in Math and Science related courses of MAAP Class 2021 and the significant difference of the academic performance between the BSMare and BSMT students.

The following summary of findings is hereby presented:
Majority of MAAP Midshipmen Class 2021 are in the age of 19-20, were college graduates, and were educated in private schools.

Most Midshipmen are having a hard time in Mathematics-related courses compared to Math and Science-related course.

The factor analysis has identified four factors affecting the academic performance of MAAP Midshipmen in Mathematics and Science related courses. These are the student motivational factors, relationship-related factors, family-related factors, and distraction factors.

There is a significant relationship between the identified factors that affect the academic performance of midshipmen and their profile.

There is a significant relationship among the level of academic performance of BSMarE and BSMT midshipmen in mathematics related courses but no significant relationship in both math and science related courses.

Conclusions
Based on the presented findings, the following conclusions are drawn:
Majority of the Midshipmen admitted in MAAP are in the age of 19-20, were college graduates, and were educated in private schools.

Basing on the results in Chapter 3, the majority of MAAP Midshipmen Class 2021 performs poorly in Mathematics-related courses. While most of them perform proficiently in both Math and Science-related courses.

The researchers found out that the academic performance of the Midshipmen is affected by student motivational factors, relationship related factors, facility related, and distraction factors. The student motivational factors, relationship-related factors, and facility-related factors affect the academic performance of MAAP midshipmen to a very great extent. While the distraction factors affect their academic performance to a moderate extent.

Based on the computed value, both educational attainment and the type of school attended have a significant effect on the academic performance of the respondents. And age was found to have no significant influence on the academic performance of the said respondents.

Based on the computed value, the mean average grade of BSMT midshipmen in Mathematics related courses is greater than the mean average grade of BSMarE. While in both Math and Science related courses there is no significant relationship in the academic performance of both BSMarE and BSMT.

Recommendations
The researchers suggest increasing the required GPA of the applicants to decrease the possibility of acquiring deficient midshipmen in the future.

Come up with an extra-instruction to the midshipmen who are deficient in Mathematics-related courses.

Focus more on Mathematics-related courses due to an alarming number of midshipmen getting deficient on the said courses.

Inform the Guidance Office with regards to the result of the research to motivate the midshipmen to excel in academics and minimize the factors that affect the academic performance.

Concentrate on BSMarE midshipmen in teaching Mathematics-related courses.