ASSIGNMENT COVER REGION HARARE/CHITUNGWIZA PROGRAMME BCOM HHIR INTAKE26 FULL NAME OF STUDENT JEKESAI C. NXUMALO PIN P1449427C MAILING ADDRESS 13 Little Avenue, Queensdale, Harare CONTACT TELEPHONE/CELL 0772 280 647 ID. NO. 63-1195086P75 COURSE NAME Negotiation In Conflict Management COURSE CODE BHIR309 ASSIGNMENT NO. 2 DUE DATE 04/2018 ASSIGNMENT TITLE Using practical examples assess how the power is exercised in negations. MARKERS COMMENTS ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ OVERALL MARK _____________ ______MARKERS NAME _____________________ MARKERS SIGNATURE _____________________________ DATE ______________ Power is the ability or capacity to achieve desired outcomes and negotiation refers to the process of interacting in order to advance individual interests through joint action. Contrary to what you might think, negotiations are not confined to the professional world. We often negotiate in our personal lives. The principles that guide successful negotiations in world politics are equally important in the business world as well as our personal lives. In fact, almost every transaction with another individual involves negotiation. Negotiation, conflict resolution, and relationship management are complex processes. In the ever-changing environment of modern business, firms start and grow by virtue of successful negotiations and by developing long-term relationships among two, three, or more parties involved, either directly or indirectly, in various business processes. By the same token, such relationships can break down due to ineffective negotiating behaviour and conflict management approaches. Such breakdowns can also occur because of misunderstandings and misperceptions of the other parties positions and interests. To understand how power is exercised in negotiations, there is also need to know the sources of power. These sources of power include Information and expert power, Resource control, legitimate power, location in the structure and personal power. Information power and expert power refers to the ability by the negotiating party to gather as much information as possible and being able to creatively use that information in advancing their interests. For example, a home buyer could improve her power in a negotiation with a seller by finding another house she likes just as much. This is known as the best alternative to a negotiated agreement, or BATNA, which is often ones best source of bargaining power. By cultivating a strong outside alternative, you gain the power you need to walk away from an unappealing deal. Hence the ability to mount an argument based on known facts increases the chances of getting desired outcomes. Most professionals and leaders potentially have expert power. It is the esoteric nature of the professionals subject matter that means most superiors or colleagues dont possess the same applicable knowledge or judgment even if one has no formal authority on the subject. Therefore the word on a subject carries weight and has the means to influence the outcome of decisions where it applies. For example, a programmer can influence the design of a niche application because of their knowledge of a codebase, and a support engineer can influence how a support process operates because they are known to be the best at supporting that function. It is common, therefore, that followers can have more expert power than their leaders. New leaders particularly can possess far less knowledge than their followers. This can put them in a vulnerable position. To gain the same level of knowledge can be time-consuming and possibly not practical, if skills are hard to acquire. A Finance Director would not be expected to take a Cisco Systems course so that they can directly influence the outcome of a computer network investment, would you As a leader in this situation, you should not rely only on expert power to influence outcomes and use other sources of power accordingly. Therefore, by possessing expert power you have something that most others cannot easily acquire. Second, some positions, roles, and titles grant power simply due to the authority or control they exert over a wide range of important outcomes. This type of power, referred to as role or positional power is often found in organizational hierarchies. Power can come from a strong role, title, or position, such as a high rank in an organization. When negotiating with your boss, for instance, you sometimes may need to cede to his preferences because of his high status. Some of the directives from superiors to subordinates may be unpopular but one finds himself/herself obligated to execute or follow them unquestionably. Without this sort of power, chaos would prevail in these institutions and organisations. Positional power is gained by a persons role in their organization. In many organizations a grading system is used to position an employee, or it maybe evident in an organization chart. However your organization elevates its employees in the structure, positional power is a function of ones formal authority. Its being the boss. As the boss you can decide who does what job and who goes where. As the formal authority, you have influence because you have been given the accountability for that department or function. Being the boss, however, does not guarantee that you will have followers that comply of their own free will. It does not mean you will be the leader. Using only positional power means you make decisions without consideration of personal relationships, individual needs and personal objectives. It could result in compliance, and only compliance. You might see that your subordinates work to rule or union policy, and behave inflexibly. Subordinates in this sense are wielding positional power too in order to influence an outcome. Ensuing disputes can be very costly and disruptive, and it is likely as a leader you will come out of this for the better. Using positional power in negotiating is not bad, but should be used in conjunction with other sources of power to be most effective. There is a third form of power that you can bring to your negotiations psychological power. In fact, its possible for you to have a psychological sense of power even when you lack objective power. Professor Cameron Anderson of Haas School of Business at the University of California, Berkeley, has shown that although people differ in the degree to which they feel psychologically powerful in the world, they can create a temporary sense of power. When your confidence is low, you can give it a boost by thinking about a time in your life when you had power. Interestingly, being powerful and feeling powerful have essentially the same consequence for negotiations. Regardless of its source, power has consistent and predictable effects both positive and negative on negotiations. REFERENCES Zimbabwe Open University Negotiation in Conflict Management Module McClelland, D. (1975). Power The inner experience. New York Wiley and Sons, Inc. Miller, J.B. (2003). Telling the truth about power. Work in Progress, 100 Wellesley Stone Center Working Paper Series. JEKESAI C. NXUMALO 6kdHFzNY45Mo7JT -G vwCEIT.vizTrJBDl 5fNumydv8N
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