ASSESSMENT OF ACCESS TO WASTE DUMP SITES IN GIDAN KWANO MINNA
A Project Submitted To The Department Of Urban And Regional Planning In Partial Fulfillment Of The Requirements For The Award Of Bachelor Of Technology (B.Tech) Degree In Urban And Regional Planning
MOHAMMED SHERIFF BABA
DEPARTMENT OF URBAN AND REGIONAL PLANNING
SCHOOL OF ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY
FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY MINNA NIGER STATE.
BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Waste disposal has been a serious challenge in Nigerian cities especially in rural-urban settlement like Gidan Kwano in Minna. Adeyemi et al, (2001) observed that solid waste constitute a major problem in most developing countries. Adeyemi added that waste management is one of the most intractable problems facing city administrators and environmental agencies. Ogwueleka, (2009) reported that solid waste management is by far one of the greatest challenges facing environmental bodies in the country. As a result of the management challenges, Adefemi and Awokunmi, (2009) reported a breakdown of law and order in relation to waste management. They observed that urban centres are experiencing an increased rate of environmental deterioration as a result of indiscriminate dumping of solid waste. Omuta, (2011) noted that one notable flaws in waste management administration in developing countries is the unavailability of a proper waste management policy. His view is that for waste management to work, various aspects of Government services such as engineering, urban planning, Geography, economics, public health and law among others must be brought together under a proper policy to deliver an effective waste management system. Ogwueleka (2009) argues that some of the approaches used in tackling the waste problems in Nigeria have recorded very little success. He observed that, the approaches do not distinguish the different needs and diversities of the different cities in the country. He added that these approaches are capital intensive and bureaucratic. Ezeah and Roberts, (2013) observed that the state of solid waste management in Nigeria has been a major concern to stakeholders. Ogwueleka (2009) reported that inefficient collection and unsafe disposal are some of the characteristics of waste management in Nigeria. Ogu (2010) highlighted that about 80 – 90% of the wastes generated in some low level income communities in Africa are not collected for safe disposal. Imam et al, (2009) reported that piles of waste are dumped by the roadside and other open spaces thereby posing environmental risk. It is in response to these flaws that (Imam et al., 2008) submitted that solid waste has indeed becomes an important issue in Nigeria. To corroborate these submissions, (Izugbara and Umoh, 2013) reported that the waste management crisis in the country is already visible. They added that to a large extent, waste management contributes to social, political and environmental costs. These costs are thought to have enormous implications for the economy and the populace (Izugbara and Umoh, 2013). Omuta, (2011) reported that the major players involved with waste management in Nigeria are the public and the private sector. His view is that, the government agencies and the ministry of environments in the various states drive the public sector. He added that some of these governments agencies could be federal, states or local government bodies. On the other hand, he observed that private sector involvement in waste management is driven by private companies. He added that these companies either partners with government agencies or provide waste management services to companies, commercial premises or members of the public for a fee. He noted another form of private initiatives in solid waste management; these are the informal waste collectors, which collect waste for a fee. This introduction of private companies in waste management became necessary as a result of the degradation of the environment from inefficient waste management practices (Ogu, 2010). Ogbonna et al., (2011) reported that in response to the enormous challenges pose by municipal solid waste management, the Government is taking steps to address these problems by engaging local contractors to evacuate waste. Ogu (2010) added that such steps were necessary in order to bring private sector investment into waste management and to enhance service delivery. The reasons behind inefficient waste management practice in Nigeria have been well researched. For example, Agunwamba, (2009) reported that there is a general lackadaisical attitude on the part of the government towards waste management. In addition, Adeyemi et al, (2001) observed that in Nigeria the management of municipal solid waste revolves mainly around open burning, open dumps, land filling, reuse/recycling and waste conversion. Arukwe (2012) added that the only management practice adopted widely throughout Nigeria involves disposal of waste on open dumps.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Incidentally, from a pragmatic point of view, our customs and traditions have not helped in mobilizing for the environmental protection and safety; neighborhood planning; and beautification of our core activity areas. Otherwise, had there been a system of collective action to keep our surroundings clean; and with penalties enforced to bring violators to bear the brunt of their transgressions, many residents would be motivated to follow personal hygiene details for timely waste clearance. The question then is where do residents dump their wastes – especially domestic wastes? The sad conclusion is that Nigeria’s urban centers and activity nuclei are inundated with solid wastes because of inadequate preparations for their removal, especially in far away and negligible dumpsites not easily accessible. There are few or no collective household receptacles for tenants and landlords to use for regular waste control disposal. There are very few or no designated zones along neighborhood streets to dispose household wastes. In the emanating confusion, regardless of the impact of infrequent environmental sanitation exercises, urban residents dump solid wastes carelessly or haphazardly – anywhere they deem fit. Such controversial tendencies and attributes would seem incomprehensible if we desire to live in beauteous environments. The failure of relevant agencies to stem the tide of reckless waste dumping and littering of our cities’ infrastructure (streets and roads) and surrounding bushes indicate a clear pattern of non-enforcement or non-implementation of existing environmental sanitation laws. The result and effects have been the acceleration of urban decay and its associated tendencies especially of flight by the upwardly mobile inner city residents to the suburbs. Aside the impact of abandoned heaps of solid wastes on the environment, one factor stands out – that is urban decay as a social disorder. It is important to note that its eradication require new skills and technology which must be studied, understood, and implemented in order to bring about clean air and safe drinking water. Huge population fallouts, inadequate supplies of social amenities, and the inability of administrators to meet with the demand of expanding population clusters critically affect Cities in Nigeria. Irregular and unplanned dumping of solid wastes, especially at night, which are often in gross violation of relevant rules and regulations continue to hinder plan preparations and effective land use delineation which were expected to usher in a beautiful, clean and orderly environment.
1.2.1 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
What are the patterns of waste disposal in Gidan Kwano, Minna?
What is the level of indigenous/public perception of the dumpsite location and operational activities?
What are the impacts of waste dumpsites utilized for waste management activities on environmental sustainability?
What are the factors that contribute to increased dumpsite impact on the environment?
What is the relationship between access to waste dumpsite and environmental sustainability?
1.3 AIMS OF THE STUDY
The major purpose of this study is to examine the assessment of access to waste dumpsites in Gidan Kwano. Other general objectives of the study are:
To take inventory on spatial patterns of waste dump sites ?in Gidan Kwano, Minna.
Identify the legal and illegal waste dump sites in Gidan Kwano
Suggest the most suitable location for dump sites and sorting centers for municipal solid waste in Gidan Kwano.
Suggest a framework for sustainable solid waste management. ?
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The general public, government and waste management agencies stand to benefit from this study. Empirically, the outcome of this research will enable the general public and government to grasp deeply the hazardous effect of reckless disposal of waste along every nook and cranny of the nation and factors that hamper the implementation of waste management in Niger State. Also, this study will equally strengthen government efforts towards the release of funds for waste evacuations and prompt payment of salaries to employees of these various agencies having vividly understood the importance of poor waste management via extensive work done on this write-up. Theoretically, this study will make a useful contribution in the field of management, as it will serve as another source of knowledge in the management of waste.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study is based on the assessment of access to waste dumpsites in Gidan Kwano, Minna, Niger State.
1.7 STUDY AREA
Gidan Kwano is in Bosso local government area of Niger state as shown in the plates below, Gidan Kwano is accessed through the Minna- Bida highway. It is the host community to the Federal University of Technology Minna.
The study is focused on Gidan Kwano village, which is about 13.4km from Minna City. It lies within the latitude of 9° 22′ 00″ and 6° 37′ 40″ and longitude 6° 22′ 00″ and 6° 28′ 00″(See Plate III).
Gidan Kwano has no major river or stream, seasonal brooks that flow through the settlement, roughly dividing the settlement into two halves, drain the settlement. There are also swamp areas and marshlands scattered about the settlement.
Precipitation in the study area is characterized by two broad seasons; these are the dry season and the rainy season. The rainy season is occurs usually between the month of April and October while the dry season is between the month of November and March. The average rainfall that falls in the study area amounts to about 328mm, while the build-up to the maximum begins in May when average received in the study area amount to 156mm; it drops to about 68mm in October. The highest amount of rain is received in the months of in August and September.
There is gradual increase in temperature from January to March. The onset of rains in April ushers in noticeable decline in temperature. This continues in cessation periods of October ending, when a further decline is made possible in November- December by the coming of the Harmattan winds. The hottest temperatures are recorded in March when Temperatures could peak at 37.1°C while the coldest temperatures are recorded in December when temperatures could dip to reach 19.3°C.
Plate I: Map of Nigeria Showing Niger State.
Source: Past Class group Project
Plate II: Map of Niger State Showing Bosso Local Government Area Source: Jangado, C 2013
Plate III: Showing satellite imagery of study area
Source: Google earth march 2018
The vegetation type found in Gidan Kwano is the Southern Guinea Savanna Vegetation. It is characterized by grassland interspersed with shrubs and trees.
This chapter gives an insight into various studies conducted by outstanding researchers, as well as explained terminologies with regards to the assessment of access to waste dumpsites. The chapter also gives the history and present status of the problem delineated by a concise review of previous studies.
2.2 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
2.2.1 CONCEPT OF WASTE
Waste is something or any moveable material that is no longer wanted or useful to the owner at a particular point in time (Agunwamba et al, 2009; Andrew and Julie, 2011, Hammed, 2013). The World Health Organization defines waste as something which the owner no longer wants at a given time and that it is perceived to be of no market value. The issue of value cannot be ruled out completely since we still have waste materials that can be recycled while others can be reused. Working definition for municipal solid waste simply put is waste generated from household (residential) and waste of similar nature generated by commercial and industrial premises, by institutions such as schools, care homes, prisons and public places such as streets, markets, slaughter houses, public toilets, bus stop, parks and gardens. This working definition include most commercial, business, construction and demolition wastes as municipal solid waste with the exception of industrial process and other hazardous wastes (UN-Habitat, 2010). Differences in the wealth of communities and countries degree of urbanization and industrialization, and intensity of agricultural activities account for the significant differences in waste treatment and disposal problems faced by developed and developing countries, and between urban and rural areas. Knowledge of the sources of solid waste along with data on the composition and rates of generation is basis to the design and operation of the functional element associated with the management of solid waste. To avoid confusion, the term refuse is often used interchangeably with the term solid waste that is not in use in this context.
The following definitions are intended to serve as a guide and are not meant to be precise in a scientific sense; types of waste according to their sources are described in detail below (Tchobanoglous et al, 2010, Adefemi and Awokunmi, 2009, Adebola, 2013). Residential and commercial solid waste, excluding special and hazardous wastes, consist of the organic (combustible) and inorganic (non-combustible) solid waste from residential areas and commercial establishments. Typically the organic fraction of residential and commercial solid waste consists of materials such as food waste (also called garbage), paper of all types, textiles, and rubber leather, wood, and yard waste. The inorganic fractions consist of items such as glass, crockery, tin, cans, aluminum, ferrous metals, and dirt’s. If the waste components are not separated when discarded, then the mixture of this waste is also known as commingled residential and commercial municipal solid waste (MSW). Waste has always been created by mankind since prehistoric times (Udoessien, 2009).waste is a thing of concern in the world today, the developed and the developing nations of the world are all looking at strategies and measures in which this menace called waste can be tackled. The situation is better in the developed world some of these countries have battled with waste for the past forty years and attention now is on higher technology of handling waste and emphases is also place on the resource in waste management for national development (Cunningham and Cunningham, 2008). The worst of it all is the developing countries and to be more specific Nigeria. Waste is everyone’s business, since we have the ability to alter and modify the environment, all these activities involves the production of waste (Danbuzu, 2011).waste can be in different forms, it can be gaseous, liquid or solid, the concern about solid waste gives us a moment of thought to consider the extra ordinary natural world that we inherited and that we hope to pass on to further generation in a good or perhaps even better condition than when we arrived (Cunningham and Cunningham, 2008, Danbuzu, 2011). Waste creation by man is inevitable as far as the manipulation of the environment continue, the worries of environmentalist is the quality and the toxic level posed by the waste we produce (Danbuzu, 2011, Adewole, 2009). As a result of our daily activities to survive, we produce waste in millions of tons annually (Hammed, 2013, NBS, 2011). It must be reemphasized that the volume of solid waste generated does not invariably measure the degree to which the environment will be polluted. Thus, if the waste can be evacuated and disposed of satisfactorily and as fast as it is generated, there would be no accumulation and hence no insult, abuse and pollution. It is when evacuation and disposal perpetually lag behind the rate of generation that solid waste becomes an environmental nuisance.
2.2.2 CONCEPT OF DUMP SITES
A landfill site or dumpsite is a site for the disposal of waste materials by burial. It is the oldest form and most common method of waste treatment and disposal in so many places around the world. Three types of landfills are normally used for solid waste disposal and they are: open dumps, controlled landfills and secured or sanitary landfills
These are dumps were there are no standards for refuse dumping (Gouveia and Ruscittodo Prado, 2010). They are locations where illegally dumped, abandoned piles of garbage and debris are left in large quantities. They have the lowest initial capital investment and operating cost; and are generally sited in vacant plots of land and are typically developed in low-lying marshy lands, often as a means of reclaiming land for subsequent development. Open dumping of municipal solid waste, which is practiced by about three-fourth of the countries and territories in the world, are a primitive stage of landfill development (Kumar, et al; 2013); and represent an increased risk to groundwater quality and health risks to surrounding residents.
These are non-engineered disposal sites at which wastes are deposited in accordance with minimum prescribed standards of site operation. Typically controlled landfills have minimal site infrastructure, with improved operational and management procedures. The site is generally identified on the basis of land availability and convenience and is already being used as an open dump; and not on the basis of technical, environmental or financial criteria. Also, there is typically little provision for the management of pollutants released during decomposition of municipal solid waste.
Secured or Sanitary Landfills
A secure landfill is a carefully engineered depression in the ground (or built on top of the ground, resembling a football stadium) consisting of a bottom liner, a leachate collection system, a cover, and the natural hydro geologic setting. The aim is to avoid any hydraulic water-related connection between the wastes and the surrounding environment, particularly groundwater (Environmental Research Foundation, 2011). The use of sanitary landfills is not feasible for many waste management authorities of most countries due to cost constraints.
During landfill operations the waste collection vehicles are weighed at a scale or weighbridge on arrival and their load is inspected for wastes that do not meet up with the landfill’s waste acceptance criteria. Afterward, the waste collection vehicles use the existing road network on their way to the tipping face or working front where they unload their contents. After loads are deposited, compactors or bulldozers are used to spread and compact the waste on the working face. Before leaving the landfill boundaries, the waste collection vehicles pass through a wheel cleaning facility. If necessary, they return to the weighbridge in order to be weighed without their load. Through the weighing process, the daily incoming waste tonnage can be calculated and listed in databases for record keeping. Typically, in non-hazardous waste landfills, in order to meet predefined specifications; techniques are applied by which the wastes are confined to as small an area as possible; compacted to reduce their volume and covered (usually daily) with layers of soil. The space that is occupied daily by the compacted waste and the cover material is called a daily cell. Waste compaction is critical to extending the life of the landfill. Factors such as waste compressibility, waste layer thickness and the number of passes of the compactor over the waste affect the waste densities. The existence of uncontrolled municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills have resulted in adverse environmental impacts, public health problems, socio-economic challenges and increased public opposition. Literature exist of several studies on the correlation between environmental pollution arising from waste dumps and public health, and the social consequences of the present urban waste management issues in developed and developing countries (Aatamila et. al. 2010; Gouveia and Ruscittodo Prado, 2010; Nwanta et. al. 2010; Ogunrinola and Adepegba, 2012).
2.2.3 COMPOSITION OF WASTE
Generally, solid waste is of varied composition that arises out of materials such as dust ash, rags, garbage, broken glasses, waste paper, food wastes, iron tins, cookery and vegetable garbage as well as scraps, old furniture etc. The composition of household waste emanating from water carriage includes:
a) Ashes and Residue: According to Smith (2014) ashes and residues are materials remaining from burning of wood, coal, coke and other combustible materials in homes, stores, institutions, industrial and municipal facilities for any purpose.
b) Organic Matter: Cheremisinoff and morresi (1976) defined food wastes, also called garbage are animal, fruit or vegetable residues resulting from the handling, preparation, cooking and eating of foods.
c) Mineral Matter: It consists of iron, old tins, broken glass, grit, dust, stones, Those considered to be of value among these materials are mostly sorted out by those who may need them.
d) Agricultural Wastes: Mantle (2011) and cheremisinoff and Morresi(1976), define or classify these as waste generated as a result of diverse agricultural activities such as growing, planting harvesting, processing, packaging, preservation and preparation are collectively called agricultural wastes.
e) Solid waste can be managed, therefore to speak on the fold of solid waste management one will take into consideration the consequences it has on lives, which are as follows:
a. Generation of solid waste
b. The magnitude of solid waste problems in term of quantities generated.
c. Public health and ecological impact of solid waste
d. Nature challenges and opportunities with respect to solid waste management
2.2.4 SOLID WASTE PROBLEM
The management of solid waste is very important and needs to problem to be tackled with all seriousness. According to Uchegbu (2011) solid waste management can be taken to be the process of putting together those items of environmental nature where man exist so as man’s activities do not have adverse effect on the environment Enebong (1986) states that the problem of solid waste dates back to the time when urbanization started and since then, there has been an increasing rate of refuse generation in Nigerian towns and cities. The generation and accumulation of solid waste are beginning to produce social, economic and environmental problems in significant proportions. These problems are particularly acute in regions with the experience of high population growth, which result in the generation of high amount of waste with no land to dispose them, Rinberg (2011). The contemporary difficulties facing urban centres in Nigeria can be attributed to government’s incapability in financing solid waste management at various levels. It may not be possible to stop man from his different activities, however, it is his duty to effectively control waste from various life’s activities since government cannot do everything.
2.2.5 FACTORS AFFECTING GENERATION RATE
Solid waste generation is affected by several factors and some of them are:
Social habits of the neighborhood
The horticultural choice of the neighborhood
The geographical characteristics of the land
The habits of the people, what they eat, drink and the packaged material they buy.
2.2.6 COLLECTION AND TRANSPORTATION OF SOLID WASTE
a) Collection of Solid Waste: According to Smith (1979), the gathering of generated domestic waste for disposal varies between residential, commercial and recreational facilities. Mantel (2011), states that as the generation pattern varies, the quantity of waste increases and the logistics associated with collection become complex. Qoun et al (2014) reported that, the collection of domestic wastes constitutes about 80% of the total cost of handling solid waste.
b) Transportation of Solid Waste: Transportation of the waste stored at waste storage depots at regular intervals is essential to ensure that no garbage bins/containers overflow and waste is not seen littered on streets. Curled from (Wikipedia, 2014). Hygienic conditions can be maintained in cities/ towns only if regular clearance of waste from temporary waste storage depots (bins) is ensured.
2.2.7 BENEFITS OF SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL
Waste is not something that should be discarded or disposed of with no regard for future use. It can be valuable resource if addressed correctly, through policy and practice. With rational and consistent waste management practices there is an opportunity to reap a range of benefits. Those benefits include:
a) Economic: Improving economic efficiency through the means of resource use, treatment and disposal and creating markets for recycles can lead to efficient practices in the production and consumption of products and material resulting in valuable materials being recovered for reuse and potential for new jobs and new business opportunities, (Wikipedia 2014).
b) Social: By reducing adverse impacts on health by proper waste management practices, the resulting consequences are more appealing settlements. Better social advantages can lead to new sources of employment and potentially lifting communities out of poverty especially in some of the developing poorer countries and cities, (Wikipedia 2014).
c) Environmental: Reducing or eliminating adverse impacts on the environment through reducing, reusing and recycling and minimizing resource extraction can provide improved air and water quality and help in the reduction of greenhouse emissions, (Wikipedia 2014).
d) Inter-generational Equity: Following effective waste management practices can provide subsequent generations a more robust economy, a fairer and more inclusive and cleaner environment, as stated by the United Nations Environmental Programme (2014).
2.2.8 CRITERIA FOR SELECTION OF LAND FILL SITE
Environmental protection and public health considerations should be the principle concerns in site selection. Selection of an appropriate site will minimize potential environmental impacts and provide a sound basis for effective management. The factors which need to be addressed during site selection include the potential for the creation of public health hazards or nuisance, the potential for the pollution of water bodies, local topography and soil erosion risk, the suitability of soils for earthworks and containment of leachates, the adjacent land uses and the accessibility of the site to users. Landfill site for solid wastes should be selected on following criteria:
Land area and volume should be sufficient enough to provide landfill capacity so that the projected need can be fulfilled for several years. In this way the cost coming on all that procedure can be justified.
The landfill site should not be at locations where suitable buffer zones between landfill site and population are not available.
The landfill area having steep gradient (where stability of slope could be problematic) should not be selected.
The water level in ground water table should be sufficient below the base of any excavation to enable landfill development.
The land, which is significant, environmentally (lands of biodiversity); the sensitive ecological area of such a land should be present within potential area of landfill site.
Public & private irrigation water supply wells should be well away from the boundaries of landfill site because these supply wells will be at risk of contamination.
Landfill area should not be very close to significant water bodies (water courses or dams). There will be the risk of contamination of water bodies, which can be hazardous for aquatic life.
No major power transmission or other infrastructure like sewers, water supply lines should be crossing through landfill developmental area.
No residential development should be near the boundaries of landfill site. The waste disposal site must be very away from residential or commercial areas and water resources.
Landscaping and protective shelf should be included in the design so that to minimize the visibility of operations.
Unstable areas that have significant seismic risk, which could cause destruction of berms, are not recommended for landfill site.
There should not be fault lines and significantly fractured geological structure. These fault lines can allow the unpredictable movement of gas within 500 meters of perimeter of proposed landfill development.
Groundwater quality should not be disturbed during the site developmental phase. There should be monitoring facilities at site in order to ensure that ground water quality is maintained.
In areas under the laws of concerned municipality it should be responsibility of municipality to identify landfill site and handover to operators for operations.
Selection of landfill site should be based upon the examination of environmental issues.
The landfill site should be near the wastes recycling facility otherwise, the waste recycling facility should be planned as integral part of landfill site.
Biomedical wastes should be disposed off in accordance with guidelines issued by Ministry Of Health, Government of Nigeria.
2.2.9 CONCEPT OF SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT
Solid waste management could be referred to as the collection, transfer, recycling and disposal of solid wastes (Cointreau-Levine, 2014). Solid waste management refers essentially to a process of collection; transfer and disposal of wastes generated in cities and includes the institutional structures and arrangements for the efficient disposal of solid wastes (Ogu, 2010). According to Tchobanoglous (2011), solid waste management may be defined as the discipline associated with the control of generation, storage, collection, transfer and transport, processing and disposal of wastes in a manner that is in accord with the best principles of public health, economics, engineering, conservation, aesthetics, and other environmental considerations that are also responsive to public attitudes. The term “solid waste” refers to household refuse, market waste, street sweepings and waste materials from institutions such as schools, colleges and commercial establishments (Ogu, 2010). The importance of waste collection, transfer and disposal cannot be overemphasized. Apart from the issue of aesthetics, uncollected wastes constitute health risk which can be a serious consideration in local communities. Leachate from uncollected and decomposed garbage waste can contaminate ground water (UNCHS, 2014) and this could have enormous health implications in low-income communities where the use of well water for drinking is common.
2.3.10 SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT APPROACH IN SOME NIGERIAN CITIES
A waste management practice in Nigeria is poor. Numerous studies reported a similar pattern of management at the states and city level. There are about 37 states in Nigeria including the Federal Capital Territory; most of these states are faced with the same waste management challenges.
Ibadan city, Oyo state
Adeoye et al, (2012) observed that there are illegal solid waste dumps in several parts of the city. He found that these waste dumps undergo physical and chemical changes under the intense heat of the sun thereby posing the risk of pollution to the ecosystem. A study of market waste in Ibadan (Bammeke and Sridhar, 1989) shows that the environmental conditions in most of the city markets are poor. Their study stated that, while waste is continuously being generated, arrangements are not made for their effective collection, transportation and disposal. Ayininuola and Muibi, (2008) pointed out that heaps of solid wastes including abandoned vehicles are common in some parts of Ibadan. Ibadan is the capital city of Oyo state. A survey of 648 household in the city (Afon and Okewole, 2011) reveals that the per capital solid waste generation is estimated to be 0.129kg per day. The survey revealed that about 75.4% of the total wastes generated are organic materials. They pointed out that there are potentials for reuse and recycling through composting or anaerobic digestion of waste produced in the state. Similarly, Bammeke and Sridhar, (1989) noted that about 68% of market wastes are putrescible. They suggested composting as the best form of treatment. Similarly, Rahji and Oloruntoba, (2009) noted that most waste materials generated in Ibadan especially household waste are mainly made up of food waste. They advised that it is important that the waste should be disposed of using the best means possible as they may constitute environmental hazard during decomposition. Rahji and Oloruntoba pointed out that a good disposal practice will avoid the creation of a breeding ground for flies, vermin and ground or surface water pollution through leaching and flooding. However, findings from (Ayininuola and Muibi, 2008) reveal that the collection system in some parts of the city is grossly inadequate as only a fraction of the wastes generated are collected and only a fraction of the collected waste are properly disposed of. They pointed out that changes in the day-to-day activities in some parts of the city, especially in demographic expansion have led to an increase in the volume and diversity of solid waste. Bammeke and Sridhar (1989) cited unplanned development as a major cause of the current waste management practice in the city. They went on to say that one other major cause of indiscriminate dumping in the city is the inability of the authorities to provide effective waste management service.
Ayotamuno and Gobo (2013) reported that once the city of Port Harcourt was referred to as the garden city of Nigeria. This was due to its cleanliness and beautiful vegetation. These days, however, refuse from various sources forms litter in various parts of the city. Igoni et al. (2011) indicated that although large quantities of the refuse generated in Port Harcourt are collected, some are left to form litters in some parts of the city. Ogbonna et al. (2011) added that householders deposit their waste at designated collection centres, which are usually located along major roads and public markets. The local contractors working in partnership with government agencies then collect these wastes. Despite this arrangement, Ayotamuno and Gobo, (2013) reported that indiscriminate dumping still persists in the city. Other disposal methods such as burying and open burning are also used (Igoni et al., 2011). Ogbonna et al (2011) noted that the old Port Harcourt Township once had a good level of infrastructure with good drainage system and waste disposal centres. However, the rapid population growth that accompanied the discovery of oil and the lack of government control on new development gave rise to housing shortages and unplanned road network in the city. Ogbonna and others believe that this pattern of informal development make effective waste management a difficult task. Omuta, (2011) suggests that uncontrolled development and poor urban structure can poses a big constrains on solid waste management as they create difficulty and accessibility problems.
An examination of the current solid waste management in Lagos reveals a similar trend to other regions of Nigeria. However, some improvements have been made in the city. Ezeah and Roberts (2013) noted that Lagos state has made some significant progress in growing institutional capacity for solid waste management. Solomon (2009) observed that Lagos is one of the few states in Nigeria that provide collection service from house to house and communal collection points. He reported that the state commissioned a transfer loading system, to serve several areas of the state. The project will see waste being compacted before transferring them to dump sites. However, Adewole (2009) reveals that there are several areas that still need to be improved upon, if the objectives of sustainable developments must be achieved. He pointed out that most of the industries around the Isolo area of Lagos still do not have pollution abatements programmes in place. Hence, the Lagos lagoon absorbs 10,000 m3 of industrial effluent daily. Despite attempts to organise a collection system in Lagos. Kofoworola, (2011) argues that there are still inadequate facilities for waste management in the state. He found that, some inhabitants of the state use illegal disposal route such as dumping along the streets and motorways. A study (Afon, 2011) of two local governments in Lagos state reveals that residents store waste in small containers. Some of the containers include plastic and metal unused buckets, bowls, polythene and nylon bags. The study pointed out that the use of such small storage containers helps residents’ to get a good bargain by paying less to informal waste collectors for the disposal of their waste. He added that this storage system attracts disease-carrying vectors such as flies and rats. Kofoworola (2011) observed that Lagos does not have an integrated approach to waste management and the problems associated with the current system of management are obvious. Afon (2011) reveals that dumping of waste into the drainage channels and in public places are common practices among residents. Currently no treatment exists for collected wastes, which are transported to landfill sites and burnt for volume reduction. Kofoworola (2011) added that this burning process releases harmful gases to the ecosystem. Hence, Longe et al., (2009) advised that a management approach that emphasizes waste reduction, recycling and reuse should be adopted. Another major problem with waste management in Lagos is that wastes are not separated. A study (Ogundiran and Afolabi, 2008) of leachate characteristics in a Lagos landfill reveals that industrial and household waste are dumped together at the Olusosun landfill. This is particularly hazardous to the environment as the wastes are dumped on the landfill without treatment. Adewole, (2009) argues that since most landfills in Lagos are not engineered, leachate will percolate into streams and ground water sources. He also suggests that an approach with an organised system of collection from industrial and domestic sources should be adopted. Solomon, (2009) suggested that there is a need for landfills in Nigerian cities to be built to the required standard. However, Solomon (2009) observed that some progress is being made in terms of solid waste in Lagos. He stated that, since a large percentage of solid waste generated in Lagos is putrescible, a private company recently established a composting plant capable of treating 1500 tons of solid waste per day. In addition to this, Ezeah and Roberts (2013) stated that the Lagos state agency responsible for waste management was recognised for its effort by the Federal ministry of commerce and industry in 2010. They added that other organisations such as United Nation Development Program, Clinton Foundation and USAID have recognised the effort of the effort of the body through awards or sponsorships. However, they noted that there are still some governance issues in the state as regards waste management.
2.2.11 AUTHORIZED VERSUS UNAUTHORIZED WASTE DISPOSAL SITES
Certainly, the generation and disposal of waste is an intrinsic part of any country. In Nigeria, solid waste generated from domestic and commercial sources has grown significantly over the last few decades, which is connected with the increasing number of its population, particularly in the cities. The waste disposal practices include among others: self-disposal, discharge, illegal dumping, recycling, collection and final disposal Malumfashi et al. 2011. The wastes, which are a major problem to the environment, are mainly disposed of in open dump sites (either authorized or unauthorized disposal sites). The open dump sites waste is usually burnt and disposed of in the open air, and sometimes scavengers are seen around the dump sites collecting paper, plastic and tin Hussain et al, 2016.Basically, an authorized collection site is an approved disposal point by the MSW agency. In many countries, the authorized collection sites may be either open-space or a closed container depending on the situation and alarming environmental factor associated with the location. For example, a disposal point that is too tight with a market and no other place deem suitable around it would necessitate the need for a container so that the waste would not be exposed to the public and nearby settlements. A container is a material made of metallic substances used for storage of refuse. Marmara University Environmental Biotechnology Group (MEBiG) 2012 categorized MSW container system collection into; Hauled Container System (HCS) and Stationary Container System (SCS). MEBiG noted that, while HCS is suitable for the removal of wastes from sources where the rate of generation is high, SCS is more suitable for manual loading from residential areas or wheeled from the residential pickup and commercial pickup. On the other hand, illegal or unauthorized dumping implies that the waste generated is dumped in the vicinity of the source or in a place where such practice is prohibited, such as road site, open space, drainage and valleys. Gilgit-Bal- tistan-Environmental protection Agency (GB-EPA) (2013) noted that an unauthorized waste activity represents both waste related activities that are conducted without any due authorization or in significant breach of their authorization. For example, Hussain et al. (2016) observed that waste is disposed of in unauthorized waste dump sites in seven urban centres of Gilgit-Baltistan (GB) in Pakistan, despite having officially designated dump sites. This clearly demonstrates either the inability of authorities to curtail the problems adequately or the deliberate negative attitude of the people in not complying with the waste management agencies. The authors of this present study agree with both the two assertions because a common problem for MSW management in most Nigerian cities includes institutional deficiencies, inadequate legislation, resource constraints and improper disposal of trash by the residents, which is a form of illegal dumping.
2.3.12 WASTE COLLECTION STRATEGY IN NIGERIA
The practice of disposing of solid waste indiscriminately is costly in terms of collection, transportation, disposal and recycling. The major source of solid waste in Niger is categorized into households, commercial, industrial, institutions and street refuse. Waste collection and transportation implies to the system of waste collection from source to disposal sites. Typically, wheelbarrows are used for collecting and transporting solid waste to dump sites from households and marketplaces, and neighborhoods where trucks cannot access. The wheelbarrows usually discharge at a point (intermediate points) where trucks (about 7 tons capacity) collect it for eventual transportation to the final disposal sites/landfills. Niger’s waste can be categorized into street refuse, urban livestock manure, and industrial or semi-industrial wastewaters Malumfashi et al, 2011. Malumfashi et al. 2011 noted that the sources of street refuse in Niger are households, markets, drainage clearance, and street sweeping, which are mostly found at the side of the street and on both authorized and unauthorized dump sites. For example, the free roaming of livestock particularly in the ancient city of Niger directly contributes to the huge pile of street refuse in the city. Malumfashi et al. 2011 further disclosed that industries in the metropolis are the sources of liquid and gaseous waste. Many studies have highlighted the significance of offal discharge (domestic and industrial wastes) into the drainage systems and streams around the metropolis to the source of surface water pollution within the metropolitan Niger (see, for example, Mustapha et al, 2017).
3.0 RESEARCH DESIGN
This chapter is basically concerned with how the data for the study will be extracted and analyzed. In order to ensure efficiency in the level of work done, the method used and all the detailed acquired are limited as a result of time and capital in addition to other constraints.
A quantitative data would be collected using questionnaire, oral interview, personal observation, field observation and Internet.
3.1 POPULATION AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUES
In my quest to achieve the aim of this research work questionnaires will be carefully designed and administered to source information from the residents of the study area. Questionnaires pertaining to access to waste dumpsites will be administered.
Federal university of technology Minna is experiencing rapid growth as new departments are created in the institution and number of student admitted per year subsequently growing. The population that would be sampled or considered here are mainly students, staffs, management and villagers
3.2 MATERIAL / INSTRUMENT FOR DATA COLLECTION
Reconnaissance Survey: This would involve identification of key dumpsites within and outside the campus. This stage of the study will involve assessment of waste dumpsites.
Questionnaires: a set of questionnaires through personal interview would be used to elicit information from students, villager’s, staffs and institution management in the study area. The responses to these questionnaires will be collated and analyzed using statistical methods.
Photography: Some pictures would be taken to pinpoints refuse dumpsites in Gidan Kwano.
SAMPLING TECHNIQUE AND PROCEDURE FOR DATA COLLECTION
In this study, questionnaire and interview is research instrument used. Questionnaire is the main research instrument used for the study to gather necessary data from the sample respondents. The questionnaire is structured in such a way that it provides answers to the research questions.
This instrument is divided and limited into two sections; Section A and B. Section A deals with the personal data of the respondents while Section B contains research statement postulated in line with the research questions and hypotheses in chapter one. Options or alternatives are provided for each respondent to pick or tick one of the options.
Systematic Random Sampling method would be used to obtain information from the residents living in Gidan Kwano community. Administering questionnaires randomly would cover the bustling hub of activities.
3.4 METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION
The data obtained from the field survey would be analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. It would be analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Scientist (SPSS), pie charts and bar charts would be used for presentation. These packages are used because of the dependable attribute of these packages and are well coordinated in terms of the output of the data analysed
Department of Urban and Regional Planning,
Federal University of technology Minna,
Niger state, Nigeria.
Dear Sir / Madam,
REQEUST FOR ADMINISTRATION OF QUESTIONNAIRE
I am a B.Tech student of Urban and Regional Planning Department, Federal University of Technology Minna, Niger state.
I am currently carrying out a research on “Assessment of access to waste dumpsites”
Therefore, your frank answer to this question will be highly appreciated, as they will help the research a great deal.
Be assured that all information given will be specifically used for academic purpose and will be treated with ultimate confidence.
Thanks for your co-operation.
QUESTIONNAIRE ON ASSESSMENT OF ACCESS TO WASTE DUMP SITES (A CASE STUDY OF GIDAN KWANO, BOSSO LGA, MINNA, NIGER STATE)
Section A: Respondents demographics (please tick the appropriate response and complete when necessary)
1.Name of Residence: ………………………………….
2.Please indicate your age from the choices below
a.Below 25 years()
b.26-35 years ()
d.Above 45 years ()
3.Kindly indicate your highest academic qualification
a.Primary school level()
b.Secondary school ()
Others (please specify) ………………………………….
1.Strongly Agree = (SA)-1
5.Strongly Disagree=(SD) -5
S/NO RESEARCH QUESTIONS SA A U D SD
The pattern of waste disposal in Gidan Kwano is poor Public perception has influence on the location and operational activities of waste dump sites There are both legal and illegal waste dump sites in Gidan Kwano There is significant relationship between access to waste dump sites and environmental sustainability 5 There are factors that contributes to increase in waste dumpsites in Gidan Kwano 6 Access to waste dump sites should be created for effective waste management 7 There is easy access to waste dumpsites in Gidan Kwano