Adolescence is the period of dramatic physical changes.
If in the childhood necessary physical needs were well satisfied, then at adolescence the body continues to grow and there comes the sexual maturation known as puberty.
Typical age of puberty – from 12 to 18 years. This stage of development has a predictable physical milestone.
Also, as in the childhood, the basic physical needs are good nutrition, 8h sleep and a lot of physical activity. Food rich in vitamin and minerals is necessary to increase muscle bulk and growth of bones.
The puberty includes the main physiological changes in the individual growth of a body, weight, a constitution, gender characteristics, blood circulation and respiratory system. All these changes are very strongly influenced by hormonal activity
It is also a time of cognitive changes. Teenagers begin to think of new opportunities, consider of abstract concepts such as love, fear and freedom. Unfortunately, teenagers have a feeling of invulnerability that increases risk of death from accident or contracting sexually transmitted infection that can have consequences for the rest of life.
If cognitive needs are well understood, then adolescents will learn
to think about abstract concepts and to consider multiple opportunities and identities at once.
This very active time for formal education at schools and colleges, the choice of a possible profession could be made. If cognitive development reaches a high level, then the problems of identification of the personality are solved more simply.
Adolescence is the period in life for formation of personal and social identity. The adolescent wants
to investigate, test limits, to gain independence and commit to an identity or sense of self.
If social needs have been met appropriately, the adolescent will have good communication with parents and peers. Members of the social sphere of the teenager play an important role in the formation of the personality.
As adolescents work to form their identities, they pull away from their parents, and the peer group becomes very important; despite this, relationships with parents still play a significant role in identity formation.
There are significant differences between cultures. In the industrial world, as our, teens are expected to attend school from elementary to post-secondary. Such activity separates adolescent from family and allows to form the peer groups and create their own youth culture.
During this period of life, social responsibility, sexual expression, belief-system strongly vary from the cultural environment which surrounds a teenager. The cultural traditions existing in family are already insufficient. The teenager looks for new cultural tendency at school, at the Internet, other religions.
Adolescence form for themselves unique belief system through interaction with a social and cultural environment.
The influence of a cultural environment can have both positive and negative impacts of adolescent development.
Change of level of certain neurotransmitters (such as dopamine and serotonin) influences the way that teenagers experience emotions, usually make them more sensitive to a stress. Adolescent can show very strong feelings and intense emotions, and their behavior seems unpredictable.
At this stage of lifespan teenagers should develop a certain emotional intelligence and consciousness. Teenagers already better understood the emotions of other people, but still they can sometimes misread facial expressions or body language.
Emotional needs of adolescents can be met in several ways. Teenagers need to gain some independence, it is necessary to give freedom to make certain decisions. Creation of the atmosphere for respectful communication and discussion of the decision which was made by a teenager is better than, for example, parents decide what to wear or to what music to listen. Emotional state during childhood will influence development during puberty. Teenagers will feel the need for approval of their actions, desire to be heard and to receive forgiveness for the wrong behavior.