Academic performance can be defined as an extent to which a student, teacher or institution has achieved their short or long-term educational goals. Academic performance is commonly measured through examinations or continuous assessments but there is no general agreement on how it is best evaluated or which aspects are most important. It based on procedural knowledge like skills or declarative knowledge such as facts. Besides, it shows the ability on understanding about the current situation of knowledge and skills.
At the university level, academic performance is measured by final grade earned in the course. Therefore, the academic performance at higher education level is defined by student’s reporting of previous semester GPA (grade point average) or CGPA (cumulative grade point average) results. GPA shows the student’s performance in a semester and it is the common measure used by most of the universities as a convenient summary measure of the academic performance. GPA provides a greater insight into the relative level of performance of individuals and different groups of students. Academic performance is important because it shows a strongly linked with positive outcomes valued that more likely to be employed, stable on employment and there have more employment opportunities. The companies will need higher levels of education to tackle the technologically demanding occupations in the future.
There are a lot of previous studies that have been conducted on students’ academic performance. Therefore, these studies had been identified on factors that affect academic performance of the student at the university. The factors consist of parental involvement, student’s attitude, teaching effectiveness, extra-curricular activities, student’s learning pattern, credit hours and technologies. Parker D.A. James (2004) indicate that the first year students will face a different level of stressor such as in making new relationship, modified the relationship with families and adapt in new academic environment on learning study habits. So, parent should take a responsibility on their children by involve in making a decision. Based on Cutrona, Cole, Colangelo, Assouline and Russell (1994) who found that the higher academic performance among students should discussed their interests and concern with their parents and parents should expressed belief on their children skills.
Next, on of student’s attitude can be considered on self- control which related to self-discipline and self-regulations. Student’s attitude indicates in a certain degree the possibility of adopting certain behaviour which able to complete on academic tasks such as assignment and presentations. Pintrich Paul R. (1990) says that the important component on student’s management and control towards the classroom academic tasks based on their effort.
Other than that, teaching effectiveness by lecturer could give a big impact on student’s academic performance. This is because, Ralph (2003) had identified the attribute on effective lecturer such as commitment to learners, knowledge of material provided, organization and management the environment, desire to improve and collaboration with others. The learning effective teaching can be evaluated by student through peer assessment. Furthermore, extracurricular activities had shown a positive relationship on academic performance. Eccles ; Templeton (2002) found how individuals perform in school with the relationship and develop in extra-curricular activity. This would show that the closed relationships by involving the others extra-curricular activity are closely related to each other in order to perform in their academic like improving their critical thinking to solve the problems.
Moreover, academic performance also will influence by students’ learning pattern on their ability in understanding towards the course. Entwistle (2000) described student learning as students’ characteristic on prior knowledge, mental abilities, learning styles, their personality, attitude towards course, motivation, habits on working and skills on study. However, the credit hour of current subject by the semester would also burden student on their academic performance. Other than that, in this era of technologies, students’ perception towards the importance of academics for their future life also might be different. With the various new technologies such as social media, new online games and etc., it would lead to the laziness of students and lack of concentration towards their study.
1.2 Problem statements
Commonly, each university uses a grading system to measure the success or failure of subject taken by the students including in Malaysian Education system at higher education level. The education starts with primary school and secondary school. After students had passed on secondary school with their SPM (Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia), they are required to fill up the UPU online form as entrance system into the universities. UPU is the getaway to public universities in Malaysia. The options are provided on some of educational institutions such as Matriculation College, Malaysian Higher School Certificate (Sijil Tinggi Pelajaran Malaysia) or STPM and Diploma in any institutions as a requirement to the degree level in higher education. Recently, the government has implemented Industry Revolution 4.0 (IR 4.0) in academic education to ensure that Malaysian higher education system is consistent with the new technologies transformation.
Industry Revolution 4.0 is the name for the current trend of automation and data exchange in manufacturing technologies. It includes cyber-physical systems, internet of things, cloud computing and cognitive computing. It will give a new impetus to educational transformation and indicate the technologies innovation in ICT on education. There are a lot of new upcoming technologies that will influence students’ academic performance. Therefore, it will have either positive or negative outcomes towards student academic performance. All students are required to be familiar with the technology in order to embrace the technology that might benefit them. However, due to lack of technology exposure, the students might also unable to grab the technology benefits. Therefore, the students still need to learn about the various trends of technology to avoid being left behind. The Industry Revolution is important because it is shows as impart appropriate education to the future workforce.
For accounting course, students need to have skills relating to reporting of financial information. Therefore, a course field of accounting information is introduced in the university such as accounting information systems. This kind of subjects is quite important to give basic exposure to the computer technologies or software skills. In the meantime, students need to be mastered on online education that make easier on accessing diverse of education application software. The students might consider the current technologies might burden on their academic performance but on virtually it will help the work become easier to the future benefits. Nowadays there are a lot of new accounting software such as Sage UBS accounting software are developed in order to meet the demand of accounting technology for businesses. With the system, it might eliminate or reduce human errors and increase the accuracy of accounting records. As a result, the accounting program at University Malaysia Terengganu has introduced few types of accounting softwares to their students accounting. This can be one of the advantages to their upcoming job employed.
Other than that, University Malaysia Terengganu also has emphasized on the graduating requirement which is all students must pass on all of the main core subjects with CGPA 2.0 and above. If they get CGPA below than CGPA 2.0, they are required to reseat the courses. If some student failed on certain courses, it will burden the students for upcoming semester by adding more credit hours and may lead to extension of the semester. According to Eining (2013) the prior knowledge of accounting course and the country origin were associated with exam performance. Therefore, it begins with the first year student performance. The data shows that the first year accounting student in Canadian University got 55% grade B on actual performance in mid-term examination while grade A only 12.5 %. Moreover, the expected performance in final exam result showed a raise with 30% student got grade A and 45% student got grade B. The trends showed the student’s academic performance is based on first year attempt in the examination courses. However, if some student failed on the examination it would affects their performance and the failed subject needs to be dragged on the upcoming semester.
Year 1 Year 2
Figure 1: GPA accounting students
Figure 1 above shows that the GPA of accounting students fluctuates and the year 3 students showed quite low achievements. Therefore, this study seeks to investigate the factors affecting accounting student’s academic performance in University Malaysia Terengganu.
1.3 Research question
Based on the problem statement that discusses before, the research question of the study are:
1. What are the attributes of parental involvement and frequency of parental contact that effect performance of accounting students?
2. What are the attributes of student attitude that effect performance of accounting students?
3. What are the attributes of teaching effectiveness that effect performance of accounting students?
4. What are the attributes of ex-curricular activities that effect performance of accounting students?
5. What are the attributes of students learning pattern that effect performance of accounting students?
6. What are the attributes of credit hours that effect performance of accounting students?
7. What are the attributes of technologies that effect performance of accounting students?
1.4 Objective of the study
This study emphasise a few of factors affect academic performance towards subject in the accounting course. However, this study also focus among student accounting in University Malaysia Terengganu and had investigated whether the variable will affect academic performance. The objectives of the study are:
1. To determine parental involvement and frequency of parental contact that effect performance of accounting students?
2. To determine student attitude that effect performance of accounting students?
3. To determine teaching effectiveness that effect performance of accounting students?
4. To determine extra-curricular activities that effect performance of accounting students?
5. To determine students learning patterns that effect performance of accounting students?
6. To determine credit hours that effect performance of accounting students?
7. To determine technologies that effect performance of accounting students?
1.5 Significant of the study
Based on the observation, many researchers have conducted investigations on factors affecting student’ academic performances. This study will show the ability of each student in order to success as a degree holder in future. The finding on the research will give an idea on improving the student academic performance in some ways and the students’ abilities as well. Besides, this study will provide the useful information and valuable techniques that can apply in their academic based on different factors.
In university environment, there may be a lot of factors influencing their personality, studies perception, knowledge skills and etc. whether internal or external factors. This study will determine what are the factors affecting their academic performance. Moreover, the findings from observation will provide some insights on how to improving the student abilities. Next, the findings will help the student to improve their academic performance by knowing the factors contributed to the low academic performance.
Therefore, the findings will be one of the references source to other researchers who are going to conduct research relating to academic performance.
This chapter describes the purpose of the study with the conjuction of objectives of this study in order to determine the factors influencing academic performance.
There are a few of studies have been carried out to identify and analyse the various factors that may affect student academic performance. According to Minnesota (2007) in higher education performance are depends on academic performance from graduate students. First and foremost, the study by Norsida Binti Hasan (2010) emphasized that there are several routes to enter the higher education in Malaysia. For instance, pre-university, matriculation college programme and two-years form sixth education programme that well known as Malaysian Higher School Certificate (Sijil Tinggi Pelajaran Malaysia) or STPM. Killen (1994) indicate that no matter the routes for university entrance examinations are not likely to be strong predictors of success in university. However, Durden and Ellis quoted Staffolani and Bratti (2002) state that student previous educational outcomes as a measurement are the most important indicators for student future achievement.
In predicting academic performance, socio-economic status is one of the elements had been studied. According to Graetz (1995) observe on socio-economic status by their parents and summarise on the socio-economic background had shown a great impact on student’s academic performance and student’s academic successful shows very strongly relations with parent’s socio economic standard. Moreover, Yvonne Beaumont Walters, Kola Soyibo (1998) state the socio economic background (SEB) is much dependant on student performance with statistically significant differences that linked to the gender and grade level. Besides that, parent’s socio-economic condition such as the family income can also considered on influence in their children academic performance. However, Vermunt D. Jan (2005) reported there have dissimilarity between women and men acknowledgement of cooperative learning like female students more appropriate to cooperative learning than males. In fact, this era shows female are more intelligent by perform their ability towards the annual academic than males. The differences of gender as socio-demographic variable are significantly determining the higher and lower performance or medium and lower achievers with girls are more appropriate as compared to boys to be in higher group of performance but not between the high and medium performance by Noor Azina Ismail and Halimah Awang (2008).
Other than that, academic performance could be influence by surrounding environment, how teachers teaching in the classroom and the school organizational. Based on Sparkles (1999) indicate that academic performance from the students have a strong influence by the school environment and teachers expectations. Besides, according to Romer (1993) found that student attendance will reflect on their GPA’s that indirectly may effect on student academic performance. Next, the study effort, student’s age and student’s relations with learning styles and teachers teaching styles will give positive effects on student academic performance by Nasri Harb (2006). In this case, the instructor’s should be proactive in any situation in the class by showing their enthusiasm while teaching and complete the task within targeted period.
In order to success in university, a prior knowledge is needed to be considered based on the interest course showing by student. A prior accounting subject, perception and country origin were also corresponding with exam performance by Eining (2003). In the other hand, Rowbottom (2013) was whether prior accounting courses need to be taken for university entrance were appraise with student performance. Next, Smith (1968) explained further the experience relates on accounting performance, he indicates that bookkeeping exposure from high school positively influenced in college performance. Through this, it an importance for student need to be considered based on their ability to perform for future benefits in working place. However, Schroeder (1986) stated that without the prior high school accounting coursework, there had no differences the level of performance in college students. Next, according to Nichols ; Miller (1994) stated that the students’
preparation for additional study, their previous learning experiences and their educational
success have an effect on their self-belief that successively influences their motivation and
willingness to have interaction in learning.
2.2 Academic Performance
Academic performance is the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has their own educational goals whether in achieving the short term or long term. Common university had used the cumulative grade pointed average (CGPA) to measure the student performance while the current grade based on grade pointed average (GPA). Wong, Day, Maxwell, and Meara (1995) indicate that the social perception on ability to understand the others emotional was moderate predictor of academic performance among university students by using (GPA) as indicator of academic performance. This study was supported by Summerfedlt J. Laura (2004) which considered the connection between academic success, emotional and social competencies.
Hence, academic performance can be referred on individual intelligence and their personality. The IQ test had been demonstrated by student mental abilities and for those student are able to control their conscientiousness that linked to effort and motivate their performance tend to achieve highly settings in academic. However, the demographic factors had been influence in academic performance. For example, Eamon (2005) says that usually for those students came out from low socio-economic status shows on low performance in studies and will obtain on low scores as compared to other students. The student’s academic performance can come across in any types of factors whether internal or external. The types of factors will give the impacts on student’s performance in GPA or CGPA of the semester. Gbollie Charles (2017) states the fundamental of success in academic is motivation had involved whether internal and external factors.
2.3 Parental Involvement
Parental involvement can be considered as a guide for their children whether in academic or their social daily life. This shows parent-child relationship in home with their children studies place in higher education. According to Daniel, Evans& Scott (2001) parental involvement in higher education includes assignation in the process of choosing the college, college fees, offer to support students and arrange the linked with the campus personal. The engagement and encouragement will give positive outcomes on academic achievement, healthier interaction between parent-child and decrease the level of stress by Barnett, Herndon & Hirt (2004).
Fan & Chen (2001) describe on the parental responsibility on their children. For example, parenting aspirations for their children’s achievement, communication with children about school, engagement in school-related activities and personnel as well as education-related rules imposed in the home. Through this, the children will fell distress on their daily life. Based on Harper E. Casandra (2012) stated that three domain of positive influence in parental support and involvement such as parents and academic outcomes, parents and social outcomes, parents and socio-political awareness.
2.4 Student Attitude
Student attitude is one of importance to consider whether in a good or bad in their own personality. Killen (1994) stated the factor that influence student academic performance at university was their interest towards the course, their motivation, self-discipline and their effort. Through this may lead to teacher or lecturer perception towards students such as students attending the classroom. Besides, lecturer’s perception may believe on student success will probably influence with their own performance. The lecturer would assume that students attendance at every class lecture is a necessity for success, although there might have a lot of information provided in class that not obtainable from any other source.
Next, the new technologies works had influenced on student attitude such as through E-Learning will give some advantages and disadvantages. According to Bertea Patricia (2009) says that the successful e-leaner must have a characteristic their qualities on motivation, discipline, be patience, able to use the software and had on technical skills that able to manage the time, good on communication and organizing. He explained more for those students are disabling on basic needed by e-learning like writing software, internet browsing and email communication will have pressure on it that can turn into frustrated and self-consciousness. Through this, the teachers will encourage students to be more discipline through deadline given and some rules while completing their college tasks.
However, student attitude can be considered on their perception towards the class, the way they attending the lecturer class whether in the morning, noon or at the evening. Therefore, the class attendance is quite important aspects in order to improve student performance. According to the Stanca (2006) emphasize on even the class attendance is a small things but it would be resulted and affected on student performance.
2.5 Teaching Effectiveness
McKeachie, Lin, Moffert and Daugherty (1978) stated that teachers who assume as ‘facilitator’ and ‘person’ created more helpful student attitude in the class than teacher assume as ‘Authority’ and ‘Expert’. Hence, Marshall Brain (nd) defined four core qualities of good teachers like knowledge, communication, interest and respect. In order to improve the teacher qualities, student evaluations of teaching are regularly used in university like ‘Sistem Penilaian Pelajaran’ (e-SPP) in the end of every semester before attending the final examination. According to Xiao & Dyson (1999) suggest that some characteristic of good teaching had been appreciate by students are be knowledgeable in subject conducted, an effective teaching approaches, a hard-working, making the teaching environment interesting ability to motivate and facilitate independent thinking.
Other than that, Palmer’s (2000) indicate that students can be placed on equal or higher value in basic teaching skills like ability to explain understandably, stimulate interaction and showing their enthusiasm on teaching and using a variety of attraction ways while presenting the content materials in classroom. There are the most characteristic on being a good lecturer such as accessible, enthusiastic and passionate reveals by Wright’s (2005).
Meanwhile, Lyons Paul (2002) had elaborated future about instructor characteristics, teacher’s attitudes, their knowledge and the skills during the class sessions. Teacher’s conduct the class skills is much important part to make the student enjoyable without stressing in the class. Through this, will avoid students felt sleepy during the class sessions.
2.6 Extra-curricular Activities
Commonly every university requires many types of activities whether directly or indirectly participants by students. Hence, according to Nonis, Philhours, & Hudson (2006) state that the clear exhibit in today’s college students are less allocate time for studies and they had more spend time with other activities. Moreover, that researcher had mentioned the time is a variable over which students have the most control. In today’s environment, there have a lot of extra-curricular activities had been taken under university requirement for student to get involved and can apply it in work place later. The activities are consists whether in academic or other else.
The activities that participate by students in university can consider as students involvement. Astin W. Alexander (1984) had stated student involvement had concerned on physical and also psychological energy that make student commit to the academic experience. This would lead to know more members from diverse background and may be different course taken. Indirectly, can gain more knowledge rather than focus on specified or current studies.
Other than that, the student involvement on college can be seen with the effects on different extra-curricular activities that student participate parallel with their academic performance. Extra-curricular might be student become an athletes. According to the Broh (2002) shows there was the relationship between athlete participation and academic performance had on mixed result on it and Eitzen (2003) indicate on the athletes would be more perform on their academic rather than non-athletes.
2.7 Student Learning Pattern
Learning pattern can consider on how student manage their time on studies, ability to understand the current subject and their achievement learning may influence on their academic. Vermunt (1998) report the model on learning patterns which a coherent unity of learning activities which students are used to progress, the ways they respond on their learning processes, their impression of learning and teaching and their motive on studies.
Entwistle (2000) has mention on student characteristic that consist of his/her prior knowledge, intellectual ability, studies styles, personality, attitude toward the course, self-efficiency, habits on working and studying skills. In earlier research there had using Inventory of Learning Styles (ILS) which consists of meaning directed learning, reproduction directed learning, application directed learning and undirected learning by Vermunt, Busato and Boyle (1998,2003). This was supported by Donche Vincent and Petegem Van Peter (nd). Students could be unrealized on what pattern that they use on their study. Therefore, these studies had indicated the characteristic on the learning pattern.
However, learning pattern not only influence by learning environment. It can be other factors effect on student learning pattern such as student personal ability.
2.8 Credit hour
Unit of educational time spend for learning attachment is measure by credit hours. It based on the number hours in the classroom takes per week and every semester are require the minimum of three hours in every class for a semester. The more credit hours taken in certain subject, the hardest subject are considered. The maximum credit hours on subject are restricted to 3 hours per subject. It depends on university requirement. The loaded credit hours may lead to student depression emotional and hardest subjects. Hysenbegasi Alketa (2005) had explained further on student’s depression that may include the total credit hour attempt and total credit hour earned during the university sessions.
However, the result by Eskew k. Robert shows that the total number of credit hours taken (HRS) through previous related experience (PRE) does not effect on the overall course performance.
The technology is one of the main factors to measure the student academic performance. In this era, the government had revealed on the Industry Resolution 4.0 (IR 4.0) which will fully use the online base while accessing the learning. Nowadays, technologies will use in the term of social communication such as email, participating in online forum and social network (facebook), search massive database, access wikis, blogs and user generated content site and online shop by Linda Harasim (nd).
Students will take some the advantages on learning with E-learning means on a teaching process through any forms of technology but it can claimed that e-learning will replace on teaching solution for distance education. Therefore, the use for technology as the medium to stay connected among students with their instructor. It can be one of penetrate of Internet between student and lecturer communication such as online lecture. This would lead on student laziness to attend the class. In today’s environment, the lecturer’s may use the technologies such as PowerPoint slides, videoconference, Nearpods through internet and online quizzes that may reduce the cost and time consuming.
Other than that, Cobcroft Rachel (2006) had explained on mobile learning that (m-learning) it can be flexibility that indicated that anytime and anywhere to be learned engagement. He explained further about the traits and opportunities on how the efficiently and effectively by having the mobile technology. In today’s era, had considered as the ‘fourth generation’ that student’s may use the electronic device as learning environment that will integrate between physical and digital, inactive and nomadic, online and offline and also the wireless that had been referred by Salmon (2004). Bates and Poole (2003) found that the criteria on technologies choices had emphasize on assign and access, easily to use and reliability, costs, the approaches use for teaching and learning, interactivity, issued on organizational, innovation and speediness can be consider on the effectiveness for learning and teaching in higher education.
2.10 Conceptual framework
Independent Variable (IV) Dependent Variable (DV)
Conceptual framework is an analytical tool with several variations and contexts. According to Yosef Jabareen (2009) says that the conceptual framework define as the qualitative process products of theorization that firstly determine the concepts and then the outline the processes and procedures to build the conceptual framework.
Figure 2.1 Conceptual Framework of the study
Figure 2.1 shows the relationship between different factors and academic performance. It shows that the academic performance is the dependant variables (DV) of the study and the factors which are parental involvement, student attitude, teaching effectiveness, extra-curricular activities, student learning pattern, credit hour and technology are the independent variables (IV).
This chapter had been discussed on the factors that may affect academic performance among the accounting undergraduate students. There are many the factors that had been founded through the past studies by the researchers. Moreover, this chapter has been drawn the existing literature relates to the factors. The information gathered from the experts people in the education field and other related field.
This chapter will contribute as the part of the research process. Therefore, in this chapter will indicate on the method that will be used to achieve the objectives of the study. Besides, this chapter will describe on the research design, data collection method, research instruments.
3.1 Research Design
In general, there have two approaches used in research which are qualitative and quantitative approaches. Qualitative used when collect data through the original material such as in-depth interviews, focus groups and participant observation. Besides, quantitative shows with describing and resolve the problems using numbers such as self-completion questionnaire, structured interviews and structure observation. Thus, for this study had used the quantitative approach which measured the variables with analysed the statistical procedures and numbers in order for quantify the problems. Hence, the research survey will be conducted with the questionnaire. In order to collect the data form respondent, the questionnaire had distributed personally by researchers. The sample had been selected which is accounting students in University Malaysia Terengganu.
In addition, this study will use the correlation analysis which describe on the existing relationship between variable. It will be investigate the relationship between academic performance, parental involvement, student’s attitude, teaching effectiveness, extra- curricular activities, student learning pattern, credit hours and technologies. Therefore, the ready questionnaire is adapted from the previous research.
3.2 Data Collection Methods
Data collection is the process of gathering the information from all relevant sources to answer the problems and will evaluate the outcomes. The method of data collection consists of primary and secondary data. The primary data will be conducted with collect data from the first-hand information which is the data obtained by questionnaire. Meanwhile, the secondary data is the data that already been published in journals. Hence, in this study consider as the primary data which the questionnaire will be distributes by self-administered to the respondents.
The sample of this study will consist of 70 undergraduate accounting students selected form targeted 300 accounting students. The 70 respondents are selected among form the second and third year accounting students of UMT. Since the study is about the factors affect academic performance accounting students, so the target sample is among the students accounting course.
3.3 Research Instruments
The questionnaire had used in this study as an instrument to collect the data. The questionnaire was adapted from the previous studies focus on academic performance. The questionnaire had been used the Likert Scale to measure the independent variable which starting from 1= Strongly Disagree (SD), 2= Disagree (D), 3= Neutral (N), 4= Agree (A) and 5= Strongly Agree (SA). By using the Likert Scale will be asked the extent whether respondent agree or disagree with a particular question given. Moreover, it easy for respondent focuses on the topic that will be asked. The questionnaires have been divided into two sections which section A consists of the dependent variable and their independent variable while section B consist of the demographic information.
3.4 Pilot Test
Pilot test is conducted through the questionnaire that distributed to the targeted respondent. The purpose of pilot test is to ensure that whether the respondent are clear and understand on the questions provided. Around seventy sets of questionnaire are distributed to the UMT accounting students among the second year and the third year students.
The pilot test can be defined as to test the reliability of the questionnaire whether the question asked are significance or not. The data collected will be run by using the SPSS software and used the Cronbach’s Alpha reliability to test the reliability. According to the Uma Sekaran (2000) Cronbach’s Alpha can be defined as a reliability coefficient that indicates on how the items are positive correlated to one another. The closer Cronbach’s Alpha is to 1.0, the higher the internal consistency reliability. Figure 3.3 shown the scale of internal consistency:
Figure 3.4: The internal consistency reliability
The dependent variable (DV) is academic performance while the independent variable is (IV) are student’s attitude, parental involvement, teaching effectiveness, extra-curricular activities, student’s learning pattern, credit hour and technology. The result of the reliability test analysis from the pilot test is as shown in the table 3.3 below:
Variable Cronbach’s Alpha Total of items
Academic performance 0.636 6
Student attitude 0.833 6
Parental involvement 0.741 5
Teaching effectiveness 0.903 8
Extra-curricular activities 0.803 8
Student learning pattern 0.805 5
Credit hour 0.833 5
Technology 0.757 5
Table 3.4: The results of reliability analysis
The Cronbach’s Alpha form the reliability test showed the values of the variables such as academic performance, parental involvement, student’s attitude, teaching effectiveness, extra-curricular activities, student’s learning pattern, credit hour and technology are between 0.636 to 0.903. This shows that the Cronbach’s Alpha obtained from the analysis are more than 0.70 benchmark value except for the dependent variable which is academic performance. Therefore, the next step will be to relook and further improved the questions representing academic performance before distributing the questionnaires to the respondent. Moreover, need to change the negative worded to the positive worded to gain a better understanding from the respondents. The rest of the variables shall remain as the reliability test shows that the respondents were able to understand the questions asked.
3.5 Data Analysis
This study had been conducted by using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) software. The questionnaire already compiled, sorted, edited, classified and coded into a coding sheet. The questionnaire that answered by respondent already received and need to check first whether completed or incomplete questionnaire. The incomplete questionnaire will effect on the entering the data in order to get a result.
This chapter had discussed on the method used in this research such as research design, data collection and research instruments. Besides, the questionnaire had used in this study as an instrument to collect the data, the pilot test had been conducted and seventy respondents have been selected among second and third year student for running the pilot test. Hence, the result on the questionnaires provided shows that there need to be improved or modified before distributing to others 230 respondents.