A quantitative study on determination of Heat Transfer Coefficient of a Vertical tube.
For two-stage streams, the separate dispersion of the fluid and vapor stages in the stream
channel is an essential part of their depiction. Their individual circulations go up against some
usually watched stream structures, which are characterized as two-stage stream designs that
have recognizing attributes. Heat transfer coefficients and weight drops are firmly identified
with the neighbourhood two-stage stream structure of the liquid, and in this way two-stage
stream design forecast is an essential part of displaying vanishing and build-up. (Hambraeus,
1990) Ongoing heat transfer models for foreseeing in tube bubbling and build-up depend on
the neighbourhood stream design and thus, by need, require solid stream design maps to
distinguish what kind of stream design exists at the nearby stream conditions. A three-zone
stream bubbling model is proposed to depict dissipation of extended rises in microchannels.
The heat transfer demonstrate depicts the transient variety in neighbourhood heat transfer
coefficient amid the successive and cyclic entry of (I) a fluid slug, (ii) a vanishing stretched air
pocket and (iii) a vapor slug. (Lee, et al., 2018) A period found the middle value of nearby heat
transfer coefficient is in this manner got. The new model shows the significance of the solid
cyclic variety in the heat transfer coefficient and the solid reliance of heat transfer on the air
pocket recurrence, the base fluid film thickness at dry out and the fluid film development
Keywords: HTC(heat transfer coefficient), Boiling, flow regimes, Heat flux.
Bubbling heat transfer is utilized in an assortment of modern procedures and applications.
Improvements in bubbling heat transfer forms are indispensable and could make these
ordinary mechanical applications. The increase of heat-transfer forms and the decrease of
vitality misfortunes are consequently imperative undertakings, especially with respect to
the overall vitality crisis. The local two-stage stream bubbling heat transfer coefficient for
vanishing inside a tube he is characterized as
he = q
Twall ? Tsat .
Where q compares to the local heat motion from the tube divider into the liquid, Tsat is the
nearby immersion temperature at the nearby immersion weight psat and Twall is the wall
temperature at the pivotal position along the evaporator tube, thought to be uniform around
the edge of the tube.
Convective dissipation in vertical tubes is talked about in this segment, which is
characterized by the areas C, D, E and F in Figure 1. This procedure may either be
constrained convection, for example, in a power heater or an immediate development
evaporator, or gravity driven as in a vertical thermosiphon reboiler. At high characteristics
and mass stream rates, the stream administration is regularly annular. At generally low
stream rates at enough divider superheats, bubble nucleation at the divider happens to such
an extent that nucleate bubbling is available inside the fluid film. As the stream speed
increments and expands convection in the fluid film, the divider might be cooled beneath
the base divider superheat important to manage nucleation and nucleate bubbling may in
this way be stifled, in which case heat transfer is just by convection through the fluid film
and dissipation happens just at its interface.
Figure 1: Flow boiling regimes in Vertical tubes
A few stream examples or “stream administrations” have been watched tentatively by survey
stream of fluid vapor blends through straightforward tubes. While the number and qualities of
stream administrations are to some degree abstract, four chief stream administrations are all
around acknowledged. These examples are shown in Figure 1 and incorporate Bubbly Flow
(an and b), Slug Flow (c), Liquid or Churn-Turbulent Flow (d), and Annular Flow(mist stream)
(e).These flow regimes may be generally characterized as
? Bubbly Flow: Individual dispersed bubbles transported in a continuous liquid phase.
? Slug Flow: Large bullet shaped bubbles separated by liquid plugs.
? Churn Flow: The vapor flows in a somewhat chaotic manner through the liquid, with
the vapor generally concentrated in the centre of the channel, and the liquid displaced
toward the channel walls.
? Annular Flow: The vapor forms a continuous core, with a liquid film flowing along the
To predict the existence of a flow regime, or the transition from one flow regime to another,
requires that the visually observed flow patterns be quantified in terms of measurable (or
1. The two-phase flow is steady. The vapor quality in the annular flow region is equal to
the thermodynamic equilibrium quality.
2. The vapor core is comprised of a homogeneous mixture of vapor and entrained
droplets. The temperature of the two-phase mixture within the vapor core is equal to
the saturation temperature based on local pressure.
3. The thickness of the annular liquid film is uniform along the channel circumference,
and small compared to the hydraulic diameter
4. There is continuous deposition of droplets from the vapor core to the liquid film
interface along the stream-wise direction. Droplet deposition rate per unit area is
assumed uniform along the channel perimeter.
A variety of investigations have been made to understand the physics behind boiling heat
transfer, despite all the many experimental and numerical studies, there is still lack of
experimental data concerning the influence of thermos physical properties such as surface
material and types of liquid on nucleate flow boiling heat transfer.
In nucleate pool boiling, heat transfer is a strong function of heat flux, instead in forced
convective evaporation, heat transfer is less dependent on heat flux while its dependence on
the local vapor quality and mass velocity appear as new and important parameters. Thus, both
nucleate boiling and convective heat transfer must be considered to predict heat transfer data.
Nucleate boiling tends to be dominant at low vapor qualities and high heat fluxes while
convection tends to dominate at high vapor qualities and mass velocities and low heat fluxes
An exhaustive literature survey showed that nucleate flow-boiling is a very complicated
process and is affected by various parameters. The effect of these parameters on the HTC is
usually a compound effect and varies with changing boiling conditions. In many cases, an
accurate quantitative description of the parameters that affect nucleate flow boiling is
impossible. Therefore, for a proper evaluation of the boiling heat transfer correlations, the
number of relevant parameters should be minimized. (Churchill & Chu) This would ensure
that the considered boiling conditions are more common for various applications. The current
review showed that, in general, the effect of surface characteristics on the boiling process
depends on thermophysical properties of the surface material (thermal conductivity and
thermal absorption), interaction between the solid surface, liquid and vapor, surface
microgeometry (dimensions and shape of cracks and pores), etc. All these parameters affect
the HTC simultaneously and are interlinked. However, there are still not enough data available
to solve this complex problem; as a result, only separate effects are usually considered.
The experimental study is carried out to determine forced convective and subcooled flow
boiling heat transfer coefficient in conventional rectangular channels. The fluid is passed
through vertical tube, 0.05 m width, and 2m length. The parameters varied are heat flux, mass
flux, inlet temperature and volume fraction of water. Forced convective heat transfer
coefficient increases with increase in heat flux and mass flux, but effect of mass flux is less
significant. Subcooled flow boiling heat transfer increases with increase in heat flux and mass
flux, but the effect of heat flux is dominant. During the subcooled flow boiling region, the
effect of mass flux will not influence the heat transfer. The strong boundary layer formed along
the surface will affect the heat transfer coefficient. The results obtained for subcooled flow
boiling heat transfer coefficient of water are compared with available literature correlations.
An empirical correlation for subcooled flow boiling heat transfer coefficient as a function of
mixture wall super heat, mass flux, volume fractions and inlet temperature is developed from
the analytical results. (Su & Hewitt, 2004)
The results of both experimental and analytical set were compared, and relative heat transfer
coefficients are determined were recorded. The amount of web reinforcement was increased
near the openings and compared with the beams without web reinforcement. The consequences
of different depths were also studied using beams of different depths
Experimental set up: The vertical tube of above-mentioned dimensions is placed, and
continuous heat flux is given to the surface walls of the tube. The heat generated to the surface
of the walls are flown towards the inner walls of the tube as the water (liquid) is in contact with
the walls the heat is transferred to the water. The continuous heat flux is supplied to the walls
of the vertical tube once the liquid reaches to the saturation temperature bubble formation was
observed inside the tube and bubble formation will start. Through the continuous supply of
heat to the tube the variation of mass flow rate of the water is also a notable measure which
helps water to move to exited stage or advanced stage to reach saturation temperature.
The experiment will give only the practical approach and, in this context, excess heat supplying
to the tube will result in excess waste of heat energy. Hence a model is decribed to estimate
the exact place where the heat transfer is starting exactly and to stop the heat flux supply so
that the excess energy can be saved. The experiment was carried count under certain boundary
conditions that are to be under control to enhance the results accurately, the tube was placed
vertical and the flow of water was 1����?,external forces like gravitational force Density is
8030(kg/m3), Cp (specific heat) is 502.48(J/kg-K), pressure was 45atm. These values are
considered on calculation of heat transfer coefficient.
Results and discussions:
After examining the practical results, the amount of heat flux given was 365000 �
flow and volume fraction variation along the length of the tube was calculated and noted.
Figure 3 Variation of HTC along length.
From the graphs the heat transfer and mass flow rate along the length of the tube was defined
and can be determined the average heat transfer coefficients of the tube along the length of the
Figure 2 Variation of mass flow rate along length
Conclusion and future scope:
The cessation was the heat transfer rate of the vertical tube was varying from the characterised
length 1.6m. Hence the heat flux determined earlier is to be stopped from the early start of
The heat flux is to be controlled in such a way that the formation of bubbles needs to be
controlled as the high emission of the bubble formation results in void formation and helps the
tube to experience high amount of heat radiation that evolves from the breakage of the bubble
that may result in properties change of inner walls of tube. Hence in order to reduce the excess
waste of energy usage and to reduce the different effects of excess heat the heat flux need to
be stopped for the tube at 1.6m to understand various parameters like finding when boiling
starts, What is the dry point , Plot various regions showing how boiling occurs in a Vertical
tube , determine how heat transfer coefficient is varying. However, heat transfer over Vertical
cylinders required more investigation due to the inherent complexities of the system which
arise due to the three-dimensional nature of the boundary layer that cannot be approximated
into a two-dimensional one. This research gives a new dimension to further studies regarding
heat transfer coefficient, and different regimes of flow boiling in vertical tubes. This research
is particularly about the vertical tubes and does not deal with other tubes. More research is
required on different materials of tube. Moreover, regarding the comparison of experimental
and theoretical values, further studies should be done using other design approaches.
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