3. Table of Contents
1. Title page 1
2. Acknowledgments 2
3. Table of Contents 3
4. List of Figures 4
5. List of Equations 5
6. List of Tables 6
7. List of Acronyms and Abbreviations 7
8. Internship background 8
8.1 MASEN STATUS 8
8.2 STRATEGY IN THE FIELD OF ENERGY 8
8.3 COMPANY PRESENTATION 9
8.4 MASEN, OR THE APPLICATION OF THE RENEWABLE ENERGY STRATEGY 10
8.5 RENEWABLE ENERGY A RESPONSE 10
8.6 PROTECTING THE ENVIRONMENT 11
8.7 KEY DATES 12
8.8 PROJECTS 13
9. Internship plan 14
9.1 CSP vs PV – technologies 14
9.2 CSP vs PV – Energy Storage and efficiency 14
9.3 Key performance indicators (KPIs) 15
9.3.1. ROI (Return on investment) 15
9.3.2. NPV (Net present value) 15
9.3.3. IRR – Internal rate of return 16
9.3.4. PR – Performance ratio 16
PA – Plant availability 17
MTTR – Mean time to repair 18
MTBF – Mean time between failures 18
DCC – DC Capacity – Direct Current 18
ACC – AC Capacity- Alternating Current 18
TT – Ticket Types % 19
V – Variance between expected kWh and actual kWh 19
9.3. PI – Peak Irradiance 19
PSH – Peak Solar Hours 19
10. Lessons learned 20
11. Conclusions 20
12. References 20
4. List of Figures
1. Figure 1 The institutional architecture of the renewable energy sector
2. Figure 2 Masen objectives in Megawatts
3. Figure 3 Masen objectives in percentage
4. Figure 4 Energy dependence on other countries and oil products
5. Figure 5 Per capita electricity (2000-2015)
6. Figure 6 Power’s Noor III CSP tower plant
5. List of Equations
1. Equation 1 ROI (Return on investment) formula
2. Equation 2 NPV (Net present value) formula
3. Equation 3 IRR (Internal rate of return) formula
4. Equation 4 PR (Performance ratio) formula
5. Equation 5 Energy Output per Area formula
6. List of Tables
1. Table 1 MASEN status
2. Table 2 Projects
3. Table 3 Key dates
7. List of Acronyms and Abbreviations
MASEN: Moroccan agency for Solar Energy
CSP: Concentrated Solar Power
GG: Greenhouse gas
tCO2: The ton of CO2 equivalent
toe: The ton of oil equivalent
ONEE: National Office for Electricity and Potable Water
KPIs: Key performance indicators
ROI: Return on investment
NPV: Net present value
IRR: Internal rate of return
PR: Performance ratio
h: yearly sum of global irradiance
8. Internship background
8.1 MASEN STATUS
Legal name MASEN (Moroccan agency for sustainable energy)
business entity S.A. (corporation)
Creation March 2010
Chief executive officer Mustapha Bakkoury (President)
Obaid Amrane (Member of the Direction)
Shareholder Moroccan state
SIE (Société d’investissements énergétiques)
ONEE (Office national de l’électricité et de l’eau potable)
Investment fund Hassan II
Activity Renewable energy
Project Noor Ouarzazate I
Noor Ouarzazate II
Noor Ouarzazate III
Noor Ouarzazate IV
Subsidiary Masen Services
Table 1 MASEN status
8.2 STRATEGY IN THE FIELD OF ENERGY
Morocco is ineffectively invested with customary vitality assets and imports 96% of its vitality. Nevertheless, the Kingdom must take care of a developing demand (around 7% every year) as a result of its economic development and population increase. To address these difficulties, the Ministry of Energy, Mines, Water and Environment has built up a new national energy plan to secure energy supply while adopting a sustainable development approach. This plan also targets to preserve economical prices and better control demand.
As part of this strategy, several orientations have been adopted:
• The implementation of an optimized electricity mix around reliable and competitive technological choices;
• The mobilization of national resources thanks to the rise of renewable energies;
• The promotion of energy efficiency, established as a national priority;
• Regional integration.
8.3 COMPANY PRESENTATION
MASEN (Moroccan Agency for Sustainable Energy) was set up for the application of the strategy
Morocco launched by His Majesty King MOHAMMED VI on November 2, 2009 Ouarzazate. It is in charge of doing this extend by creating by producing 5 solar power plants which will be located in various locations and through the foundation and development of specialized program of incorporated power age ventures from energy solar and to organize the solar development strategy of the nation’s renewable energy plan, alongside the National Office of Electricity and Potable Water.
Figure 1 The institutional architecture of the renewable energy sector
The Kingdom of Morocco has traditionally been the largest importer of non-renewable energy sources in North Africa and relying on foreign sources for more than 97 per cent of its energy and Masen is instrumental in serving to turn that around.
Masen drives ventures went for making an extra 3,000 MW of clean electrical power generation capacity by 2020, and an additional 6,000 MW after that. By 2030, the national objective is to produce at least 52 percent of the kingdom’s energy mix from renewable sources.
Figure 2 Masen objectives in Megawatts
8.4 MASEN, OR THE APPLICATION OF THE RENEWABLE ENERGY STRATEGY
Figure 3 Masen objectives in percentage
Masen targets to share its best practices in order to increase and help of the development of renewable energy in nations that have the resources; nonetheless, not yet the capacity, to fully profit from the power of the sun.
8.5 RENEWABLE ENERGY A RESPONSE
The concern of the necessities for a socioeconomic development of the kingdom and the obligation to protect the environment have led to the harnessing of renewables for the energy required for a sustainable development of the country in the long-term. As choice doesn’t suggest necessarily concession, the Nation has opted for low carbon development without abandoning productivity. The Kingdom aim to transform its renewable energy into its strength in order to sustain a continuous socioeconomic growth.
In Morocco, rising energy needs concomitant with structural sectoral plans, national consumption and the electrification of rural regions (99% in 2015) are being confronted by the country’s high energy dependence. In fact, 95% of energy consumed in Morocco in 2014 was imported and the considerable unpredictability of the price of non-renewable energy sources threatens the economic development and stability. The major defy is hence to control the energy needs and combats climate changes.
8.6 PROTECTING THE ENVIRONMENT
The consciousness of the requirement to stop climate change and protect the environment is now a global concern. Furthermore, renewable energy are recognized as being the crucial answer for diminishing its effects. In Morocco, greenhouse gas (GG) emissions are not high. In 2011, the global average per capita was around 5 tons of CO2 equivalent (tCO2) compared with approximately 1.7 tCO2 for Morocco. However, affected by the effects of climate change and preoccupied by this problem, Morocco started to control its GG emissions, in accordance with the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).
During COP21, the Kingdom definite a national objective of a 13% decrease in GG emissions by 2030.
The use of renewable energy implies that by 2020, Morocco could avert the emission of no less than 9.3 million tCO2 (2.5 million tons of oil equivalent – toe), including 3.7 million through the progress of solar energy ventures and 5.6 through wind energy ventures
8.7 KEY DATES
2009 December: Mustapha Bakkoury became Chairman of the Management Board of Masen.
November: Launch by His Majesty King Mohammed VI of the Solar Plan Noor (with the goal of reaching at least of 2000 MW by 2020).
2010 March: promulgation of the law of creation of Masen, Moroccan Agency for Solar Energy.
2011 The plant selection procedure Noor Ouarzazate I is started
Launch of the realization of the complex infrastructures of the complex Noor Ouarzazate.
Implementation of the integrated approach for the development of solar projects
2012 May: Launch of the Solar Atlas, developed by Masen, tool indispensable for the accurate evaluation of the solar deposit and its spatial and temporal distribution on a large scale.
2013 Start of the selection process for Noor Ouarzazate II and Noor Ouarzazate III.
May: launch of construction works of the Noor plant Ouarzazate I by His Majesty King Mohammed VI.
2014 June: creation of the Cluster, a platform that aims to synergize actors in the ENR ecosystem in Morocco (institutions, companies, and R & D / training).
2015 End 2015: completion of all infrastructures common Noor Ouarzazate complex.
Starting the selection process for Noor PV I (Noor Ouarzazate VI, Noor Laayoune and Noor Boujdour).
2016 November: adjudication of Noor PV I (Noor Ouarzazate IV, Noor Boujdour, Noor Laayoune).
August: extension of Masen’s prerogatives, from solar to all energies Renewable. Masen becomes the central and integrated player of renewable energies in Morocco.
February: inauguration of the Noor Ouarzazate I power plant by His Majesty King Mohammed VI.
Launch of the construction works of Noor Ouarzazate II and Noor Ouarzazate III.
2017 April: launch of the works of Noor Ouarzazate IV, last central solar complex Noor Ouarzazate and first phase photovoltaic project Noor PV I.
Table 2 Key dates
Project Superficies ha Technology used CO2 avoided tCO2/an POWER MW Project commissioning
Noor Ouarzazate I 480 CSP 280000 160 2014
Noor Ouarzazate II 610 CSP 300000 200 2018
Noor Ouarzazate III 582 CSP 222000 150 2018
Noor Ouarzazate IV 137 PV 86539 72 2018
Noor Laayoune 240 PV 104300 85 2018
Noor Boujdour 60 PV 23855 20 2018
Table 3 Projects
9. Internship plan
Understand the functioning of a PV plant
How to perform a PV plant operation analysis (Performance, Availability …)
How using and produce a KPI and Performance report of a PV plant
9.1 CSP vs PV – technologies
Concentrated Solar Thermal systems (CSP) and Photovoltaic panels are different as CSP systems concentrate radiation of the sun to heat a liquid substance that is then used to increase the temperature of an engine and drive an electric generator. Alternating current (AC) is generated this indirect method from, which can be easily disseminated on the power network.
Photovoltaic (PV) solar panels diverge from solar thermal systems because they do not utilize the sun’s heat to produce electrical power. Rather, they utilize sunlight through the ‘photovoltaic effect’ to create direct electric current (DC) in a direct electricity generation process. In order to be distributed on the power network, the DC is then converted to AC (inverter).
9.2 CSP vs PV – Energy Storage and efficiency
Figure 6 Power’s Noor III CSP tower plant
CSP systems are able of storing energy by utilization of Thermal Energy Storage technologies (TES) and using it at times of low or no sunlight like in night, to generate electric power. This ability expands the diffusion of solar thermal technology in the power production industry as it is a solution to overcome intermittency issues due to environmental variations. However, PV systems do not generate or stock thermal energy as they directly create electricity and electrical power cannot be easily stored, such as in batteries.
During the day, CSP systems can generate surplus energy store it for use over the night, thus energy storage abilities can not only improve economic effectiveness but also dispatch capacity of solar power and flexibility in the power system. Hence, CSP systems are much more interesting for large scale power generation since thermal energy storage technologies are more productive than electricity storage technologies.
9.3 Key performance indicators (KPIs)
Key performance indicators (KPIs) are used evaluate, study and exploit the maximum performance of their ventures by development and operation. This information are essential and can help understand the strength and weakness of your existing ventures and make the necessary to maximize their performance.
Some examples of commonly used KIPs:
9.3.1. ROI (Return on investment)
The ratio is a basic calculation consisting on the project’s expected earnings over its initial investment. This ratio can be applied to decide if a project is profitable or should be abandoned.
Equation 1 ROI (Return on investment) formula
9.3.2. NPV (Net present value)
The NPV is used to estimate the feasibility of a project. The future revenue of the project can be determined by this calculation in today’s currency.
Equation 2 NPV (Net present value) formula
9.3.3. IRR – Internal rate of return
IRR can be seen as more efficient version of return on investment (ROI). It’s essential to check the IRR throughout a venture to guarantee good returns are being realized. IRR can be viewed as an interest on your investment.
Equation 3 IRR (Internal rate of return) formula
9.3.4. PR – Performance ratio
The performance ratio is the actual electricity produced over the theoretical estimation (Targeted). The actual performance will be smaller due to several factors, such as weather. A low PR can means that there are technical problems that are preventing an asset from performing well.
18.104.22.168 Target Yield
The target yield can be defined as the hypothetical annual energy production, only taking into consideration the energy of the received light and the module’s nominal efficiency.
22.214.171.124 Performance Ratio
The Performance Ratio is the ratio between actual yield and the target yield:
Equation 4 PR (Performance ratio) formula
The performance ration or “Quality Factor”, is not related to the irradiation and therefore useful to compare systems. It consider all losses, such as losses from pre-conversion. It is advantageous to measure the performance ratio during the functioning of the system, as a drop could help identify reasons of yield losses.
126.96.36.199 Energy Output per Area
The energy, E, delivered by a system with area A can be estimated from:
Equation 5 (Energy Output per Area) formula
The pre-conversion efficiency reflects the losses experienced before the beam hits the actual semiconductor material, provoked by the environment, such as shading and glass. The system efficiency can be defined as the electrical losses provoked by wiring, inverter and transformer.
PA – Plant availability
The PA is a percentage that represent the time that the power plant is available to provide energy to the grid. It can be understood as the up-time of the plant. Little downtime often occur because solar PV plants has high percentage of availability. The plant availability factor and the capacity factor are not the same.
MTTR – Mean time to repair
The mean of time it takes for maintenance. It is calculated by dividing the total time the equipment is not working for maintenance (preventive and corrective) over the number of failure or breakdown event of plant.
MTBF – Mean time between failures
MTBF is the mean of operating time that is the sum of the productive time and productions delays over the number of failure or breakdown event of plant. MTBF represents the risk of failure of the plant.
DCC – DC Capacity – Direct Current
The capacity is commonly describe the maximum energy that can be produced in direct current and the unit used for the calculation is the watts.
ACC – AC Capacity- Alternating Current
Compared to DC, the AC capacity is smaller because of the energy loss during the conversion from DC to AC. If we take in consideration both measurements together, an operator can observe an energy loss due to conversion of current through the inverter.
TT – Ticket Types %
Tickets are produced from diverse problems from several sources. Reduce negative impact Following the Ticket Types as a rate helps with recognizing and keeping up control over issues by examination from every period.
V – Variance between expected kWh and actual kWh
Forecasting energy generation as accurately as possible is essential for plant operations. Although there will always be variances between the expected kWh vs the actual kWh, monitoring the variance over a period of time could shine light on incorrect data or lead to other problems such as weather or hardware.
9.3. PI – Peak Irradiance
The peak irradiance represent the maximum calculated solar irradiance. Solar irradiance is the energy of the sunlight and can be measured by calculating the solar energy in watt per unit area, commonly a square meter (W/m2).
PSH – Peak Solar Hours
The PSH should not be confused with total daylight hours. The difference between daylight hours and PSH is that PSH is defined in hours the duration of sunlight that exceeds 1 kW / m2.
Although annual or quarterly targets are communicated to the O;M team, it is often difficult for team members to scale these targets into daily or hourly goals. KPIs provides that missing link where everyone on the team can gauge their efforts towards the target. When looking at performance measurements on a granular level, it allows for the company to measure the maintainers performance on a daily basis as well as increase the reactiveness and proactiveness towards the success of a high performing PV plant